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  • 1
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Ground-based microwave measurements of the diurnal and seasonal variations of ozoneat 42±4.5 and 55±8 km are validated by comparing with results from a zero-dimensional photochemical model and a two-dimensional (2D) chemical/radiative/dynamical model, respectively. O3 diurnal amplitudes measured in Bordeaux are shown to be in agreement with theory to within 5%. For the seasonal analysis of O3 variation, at 42±4.5 km, the 2D model underestimates the yearly averaged ozone concentration compared with the measurements. A double maximum oscillation (\sim3.5%) is measured in Bordeaux with an extended maximum in September and a maximum in February, whilst the 2D model predicts only a single large maximum (17%) in August and a pronounced minimum in January. Evidence suggests that dynamical transport causes the winter O3 maximum by propagation of planetary waves, phenomena which are not explicitly reproduced by the 2D model. At 55±8 km, the modeled yearly averaged O3 concentration is in very good agreement with the measured yearly average. A strong annual oscillation is both measured and modeled with differences in the amplitude shown to be exclusively linked to temperature fields.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Astrophysics and space science 212 (1994), S. 327-333 
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Considering the future importance of the search for evidences of primitive life on a distant planet, we have revisited some points of the O2 and O3 detection criteria. The budget of free oxygen and organic carbon on Earth is studied. If one includes the organic carbon in sediments, it confirms that O2 is a very reactive gas whose massive presence in a telluric planet atmosphere implies a continuous production. Its detection would be a strong indication for photosynthetic activity, providing the planet is not in a runaway greenhouse phase. In principle, the direct detection of O2 could be possible in the visible flux of the planet at 760 nm (oxygen A-band) but it would be extremely difficult, considering the much larger flux from the star. The alternative search for the 9.7µm absorption of O3 may be easier as the contrast with the star is improved by 3 orders of magnitude. A simple atmospheric model confirms that the O3 column density is not a linear tracer of the atmospheric O2 content, as was found in the pioneer work by Paetzold (1962). However, the detection of a substantial O3 absorption (τ 〉 30%) would probably indicate, within the validity of this model, an O2 ground pressure larger than 10 mbar. The question is raised of whether this pressure is sufficient to indicate a photosynthetic origin of the oxygen. If the answer was positive, it would be an evenmore sensitive test of photosynthetic activity than the detection of the oxygen A-band. Further studies of these points are clearly needed before determining an observing strategy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: balloon-borne observations ; OClO ; vertical distribution ; stratosphere ; chemical models
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The first night-time observation of the vertical profile of OClO wasperformed by the AMON balloon-borne spectrometer during the SESAME arcticcampaign, launched from Kiruna in northern Scandinavia. The flight, which tookplace inside the polar vortex on February 10, 1995, reveals mixing ratios of45±10 pptv at 20 km. These results are in excellent agreement with theREPROBUS 3D model simulations, which indicate that the observed OClOcorresponds to daytime ClO and BrO mixing ratios of 1.2 ppbv and 10 pptv,respectively.
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  • 4
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Part of the abstract: The Michelson Interferometer for Passive AtmosphericSounding (MIPAS), on-board the European ENVIronmentalSATellite (ENVISAT) launched on 1 March 2002,is a middle infrared Fourier Transform spectrometer measuringthe atmospheric emission spectrum in limb sounding geometry.The instrument is capable to retrieve the vertical distributionMIPAS data were re-processed by ESA using updated versions ofthe Instrument Processing Facility (IPF v4.61 and v4.62) andprovided a complete set of level-2 operational products (geolocatedvertical profiles of temperature and volume mixingratio of H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O and NO2). MIPAS operated in its standard observation mode for approximately two years, from July 2002 to March 2004. MIPAS data were re-processed by ESA using updated versions of the Instrument Processing Facility (IPF v4.61 and v4.62) and provided a complete set of level-2 operational products (geolocated vertical profiles of temperature and volume mixing ratio of H2O, O3, HNO3, CH4, N2O and NO2). MIPAS operated in its standard observation mode from July 2002 to March 2004, covering the altitude range from the mesosphere to the upper troposphere with relatively high vertical resolution (about 3 km in the stratosphere). In this paper, we report a detailed description of the validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data, that was based on the comparison between MIPAS v4.61 (and, to a lesser extent, v4.62) O3 VMR profilesand a comprehensive set of correlative data, including observations from ozone sondes, ground-based lidar, FTIR and microwave radiometers, remote-sensing and in situ instruments on-board stratospheric aircraft and balloons, concurrent satellite sensors and ozone fields assimilated by theEuropean Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting. A clear indication of the validity of MIPAS O3 vertical profiles is obtained for most of the stratosphere, where the mean relative difference with the individual correlative data sets is always lower than ±10%. Furthermore, these differences always fall within the combined systematic error (from1 hPa to 50 hPa) and the standard deviation is fully consistent with the random error of the comparison (from 1 hPa to 3040 hPa).
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As part of a series of similar papers on other species [this issue] and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the present paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles produced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61, full resolution MIPAS data covering the period 9 July 2002 to 26 March 2004) and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from satellite sensors or from ground-based instruments. In the middle stratosphere, no significant bias is observed between MIPAS and correlative measurements, and MIPAS is providing a very consistent and global picture of the distribution of CH4 and N2O in this region. In average, the MIPAS CH4 values show a small positive bias in the lower stratosphere of about 5%. A similar situation is observed for N2O with a positive bias of 4%. In the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the individual used MIPAS data version 4.61 still exhibits some unphysical oscillations in individual CH4 and N2O profiles caused by the processing algorithm (with almost no regularization). Taking these problems into account, the MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles are behaving as expected from the internal error estimation of IPF v4.61 and the estimated errors of the correlative measurements.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-01-15
    Description: The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As part of a series of similar papers on other species [this issue] and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the present paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles produced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61, full resolution MIPAS data covering the period 9 July 2002 to 26 March 2004) and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from satellite sensors or from ground-based instruments. In the middle stratosphere, no significant bias is observed between MIPAS and correlative measurements, and MIPAS is providing a very consistent and global picture of the distribution of CH4 and N2O in this region. In average, the MIPAS CH4 values show a small positive bias in the lower stratosphere of about 5%. A similar situation is observed for N2O with a positive bias of 4%. In the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the individual used MIPAS data version 4.61 still exhibits some unphysical oscillations in individual CH4 and N2O profiles caused by the processing algorithm (with almost no regularization). Taking these problems into account, the MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles are behaving as expected from the internal error estimation of IPF v4.61 and the estimated errors of the correlative measurements.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-10-04
    Description: We carry out a case study of the transport and chemistry of bromoform and its product gases (PGs) in a sea breeze driven convective episode on 19 November 2011 along the North West coast of Borneo during the "Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere" (SHIVA) campaign. We use ground based, ship, aircraft and balloon sonde observations made during the campaign, and a 3-D regional online transport and chemistry model capable of resolving clouds and convection explicitly that includes detailed bromine chemistry. The model simulates the temperature, wind speed, wind direction fairly well for the most part, and adequately captures the convection location, timing, and intensity. The simulated transport of bromoform from the boundary layer up to 12 km compares well to aircraft observations to support our conclusions. The model makes several predictions regarding bromine transport from the boundary layer to the level of convective detrainment (11 to 12 km). First, the majority of bromine undergoes this transport as bromoform. Second, insoluble organic bromine carbonyl species are transported to between 11 and 12 km, but only form a small proportion of the transported bromine. Third, soluble bromine species, which include bromine organic peroxides, hydrobromic acid (HBr), and hypobromous acid (HOBr), are washed out efficiently within the core of the convective column. Fourth, insoluble inorganic bromine species (principally Br2) are not washed out of the convective column, but are also not transported to the altitude of detrainment in large quantities. We expect that Br2 will make a larger relative contribution to the total vertical transport of bromine atoms in scenarios with higher CHBr3 mixing ratios in the boundary layer, which have been observed in other regions. Finally, given the highly detailed description of the chemistry, transport and washout of bromine compounds within our simulations, we make a series of recommendations about the physical and chemical processes that should be represented in 3-D chemical transport models (CTMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs), which are the primary theoretical means of estimating the contribution made by CHBr3 and other very short-lived substances (VSLS) to the stratospheric bromine budget.
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Two recent measurements of the temporal variation of nitric oxide at constant altitude near 40 km are reported. The observations were made at float altitude with a balloon-borne chemiluminescence detector together with in situ ozone measurements. The first measurement was made at 44 N on September 17, 1987, at an altitude of 40 km from before sunrise until 1000 LT. The second observation was made at the same latitude on June 18, 1988, at 39 km from 0800 to 1230 LT. At an altitude of 40 km, nitric oxide was observed to start increasing very rapidly at sunrise when the solar zenith angle reached about 95 deg. After the rapid initial buildup, the rate of NO increase stabilized for 3 hours at about 1.2 ppbv/hour. Near 1100 LT at 39 km in summer, the NO mixing ratio was observed to become nearly constant. These features of the diurnal variation of NO are in accord with the temporal variation expected from a time-dependent zero-dimensional photochemical model.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 22513-22
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