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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  GEOMAR - Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel | Supplement to: Engel, Anja; Piontek, Judith; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Riebesell, Ulf; Schulz, Kai Georg; Sperling, Martin (2014): Impact of CO2 enrichment on organic matter dynamics during nutrient induced coastal phytoplankton blooms. Journal of Plankton Research, 36(3), 641-657, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbt125
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of rising fCO2 on the build-up and decline of organic matter during coastal phytoplankton blooms. Five mesocosms (~38 m³ each) were deployed in the Baltic Sea during spring (2009) and enriched with CO2 to yield a gradient of 355-862 µatm. Mesocosms were nutrient fertilized initially to induce phytoplankton bloom development. Changes in particulate and dissolved organic matter concentrations, including dissolved high-molecular weight (〉1 kDa) combined carbohydrates, dissolved free and combined amino acids as well as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), were monitored over 21 days together with bacterial abundance, and hydrolytic extracellular enzyme activities. Overall, organic matter followed well-known bloom dynamics in all CO2 treatments alike. At high fCO2, higher dPOC:dPON during bloom rise, and higher TEP concentrations during bloom peak, suggested preferential accumulation of carbon-rich components. TEP concentration at bloom peak was significantly related to subsequent sedimentation of particulate organic matter. Bacterial abundance increased during the bloom and was highest at high fCO2. We conclude that increasing fCO2 supports production and exudation of carbon-rich components, enhancing particle aggregation and settling, but also providing substrate and attachment sites for bacteria. More labile organic carbon and higher bacterial abundance can increase rates of oxygen consumption and may intensify the already high risk of oxygen depletion in coastal seas in the future.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bracher, Astrid; Engel, Anja; Metfies, Katja; Niehoff, Barbara; Peeken, Ilka; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Cherkasheva, Alexandra; Gäbler-Schwarz, Stefanie; Hardge, Kristin; Kilias, Estelle; Kraft, Angelina; Mebrahtom Kidane, Yohannes; Lalande, Catherine; Piontek, Judith; Thomisch, Karolin; Wurst, Mascha (2015): Summertime plankton ecology in Fram Strait—a compilation of long- and short-term observations. Polar Research, 34, 18 pp, https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v34.23349
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Between Greenland and Spitsbergen, Fram Strait is a region where cold ice-covered Polar Water exits the Arctic Ocean with the East Greenland Current (EGC) and warm Atlantic Water enters the Arctic Ocean with the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). In this compilation, we present two different data sets from plankton ecological observations in Fram Strait: (1) long-term measurements of satellite-derived (1998-2012) and in situ chlorophyll a (chl a) measurements (mainly summer cruises, 1991-2012) plus protist compositions (a station in WSC, eight summer cruises, 1998-2011); and (2) short-term measurements of a multidisciplinary approach that includes traditional plankton investigations, remote sensing, zooplankton, microbiological and molecular studies, and biogeochemical analyses carried out during two expeditions in June/July in the years 2010 and 2011. Both summer satellite-derived and in situ chl a concentrations showed slight trends towards higher values in the WSC since 1998 and 1991, respectively. In contrast, no trends were visible in the EGC. The protist composition in the WSC showed differences for the summer months: a dominance of diatoms was replaced by a dominance of Phaeocystis pouchetii and other small pico- and nanoplankton species. The observed differences in eastern Fram Strait were partially due to a warm anomaly in the WSC. Although changes associated with warmer water temperatures were observed, further long-term investigations are needed to distinguish between natural variability and climate change in Fram Strait. Results of two summer studies in 2010 and 2011 revealed the variability in plankton ecology in Fram Strait.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 24 datasets
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Fadeev, Eduard; Salter, Ian; Schourup-Kristensen, Vibe; Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Metfies, Katja; Engel, Anja; Piontek, Judith; Boetius, Antje; Bienhold, Christina (2018): Microbial Communities in the East and West Fram Strait During Sea Ice Melting Season. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2018.00429
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Here we present a comparative study of polar summer microbial communities in the ice-free (eastern) and ice-covered (western) hydrographic regimes at the LTER HAUSGARTEN in Fram Strait, the main gateway between the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Based on measured and modeled biogeochemical parameters, we tentatively identified two different ecosystem states (i.e., different phytoplankton bloom stages) in the distinct regions. Using Illumina tag-sequencing, we determined the community composition of both free-living and particle-associated bacteria as well as microbial eukaryotes in the photic layer.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 222 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: The bacterial turnover of organic matter was investigated in Fram Strait at 79°N. Both Atlantic Water (AW) inflow and exported Polar Water (PW) were sampled along a transect from Spitsbergen to the eastern Greenland shelf during a late successional stage of the main annual phytoplankton bloom in summer. AW showed higher concentrations of amino acids than PW, while organic matter in PW was enriched in combined carbohydrates. Bacterial growth and degradation activity in AW and PW were related to compositional differences of organic matter. Bacterial production and leucine-aminopeptidase along the transect were significantly correlated with concentrations of amino acids. Activity ratios between the extracellular enzymes β-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase indicate the hydrolysis potential for polysaccharides relative to proteins. Along the transect, these ratios showed a higher hydrolysis potential for polysaccharides relative to proteins in PW than in AW, thus reflecting the differences in organic matter composition between the water masses. Q10 values for bacterial production ranged from 2.4 (± 0.8) to 6.0 (± 6.8), while those for extracellular enzymes showed a broader range of 1.5 (± 0.5) to 23.3 (± 11.8). Our results show that in addition to low seawater temperature also organic matter availability contributes to the regulation of bacterial growth and enzymatic activity in the Arctic Ocean.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-12-14
    Description: Between Greenland and Spitsbergen, Fram Strait is a region where cold ice-covered Polar Water exits the Arctic Ocean with the East Greenland Current (EGC) and warm Atlantic Water enters the Arctic Ocean with the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC). In this compilation, we present two different data sets from plankton ecological observations in Fram Strait: (1) long-term measurements of satellite-derived (1998–2012) and in situ chlorophyll a (chl a) measurements (mainly summer cruises, 1991–2012) plus protist compositions (a station in WSC, eight summer cruises, 1998–2011); and (2) short-term measurements of a multidisciplinary approach that includes traditional plankton investigations, remote sensing, zooplankton, microbiological and molecular studies, and biogeochemical analyses carried out during two expeditions in June/July in the years 2010 and 2011. Both summer satellite-derived and in situ chl a concentrations showed slight trends towards higher values in the WSC since 1998 and 1991, respectively. In contrast, no trends were visible in the EGC. The protist composition in the WSC showed differences for the summer months: a dominance of diatoms was replaced by a dominance of Phaeocystis pouchetii and other small pico- and nanoplankton species. The observed differences in eastern Fram Strait were partially due to a warm anomaly in the WSC. Although changes associated with warmer water temperatures were observed, further long-term investigations are needed to distinguish between natural variability and climate change in Fram Strait. Results of two summer studies in 2010 and 2011 revealed the variability in plankton ecology in Fram Strait.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are a class of marine gel particles and important links between surface ocean biology and atmospheric processes. Derived from marine microorganisms, these particles can facilitate the biological pumping of carbon dioxide to the deep sea, or act as cloud condensation and ice nucleation particles in the atmosphere. Yet, environmental controls on TEP abundance in the ocean are poorly known. Here, we investigated some of these controls during the first multiyear time-series on TEP abundance for the Fram Strait, the Atlantic gateway to the Central Arctic Ocean. Data collected at the Long-Term Ecological Research observatory HAUSGARTEN during 2009 to 2014 indicate a strong biological control with highest abundance co-occurring with the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis pouchetii. Higher occurrence of P. pouchetii in the Arctic Ocean has previously been related to northward advection of warmer Atlantic waters, which is expected to increase in the future. Our study highlights the role of plankton key species in driving climate relevant processes; thus, changes in plankton distribution need to be accounted for when estimating the ocean's biogeochemical response to global change.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) results in acidification of the oceans, expected to lead to the fastest drop in ocean pH in the last 300 million years, if anthropogenic emissions are continued at present rate. Due to higher solubility of gases in cold waters and increased exposure to the atmosphere by decreasing ice cover, the Arctic Ocean will be among the areas most strongly affected by ocean acidification. Yet, the response of the plankton community of high latitudes to ocean acidification has not been studied so far. This work is part of the Arctic campaign of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) in 2010, employing 9 in situ mesocosms of about 45 000 l each to simulate ocean acidification in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (78°56.2' N 11°53.6' E). In the present study, we investigated effects of elevated CO2 on the composition and richness of particle attached (PA; 〉3 μm) and free living (FL; 〈3 μm 〉0.2 μm) bacterial communities by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) in 6 of the mesocosms and the surrounding fjord, ranging from 185 to 1050 initial μatm pCO2. ARISA was able to resolve about 20–30 bacterial band-classes per sample and allowed for a detailed investigation of the explicit richness. Both, the PA and the FL bacterioplankton community exhibited a strong temporal development, which was driven mainly by temperature and phytoplankton development. In response to the breakdown of a picophytoplankton bloom (phase 3 of the experiment), number of ARISA-band classes in the PA-community were reduced at low and medium CO2 (∼180–600 μatm) by about 25%, while it was more or less stable at high CO2 (∼ 650–800 μatm). We hypothesise that enhanced viral lysis and enhanced availability of organic substrates at high CO2 resulted in a more diverse PA-bacterial community in the post-bloom phase. Despite lower cell numbers and extracellular enzyme activities in the post-bloom phase, bacterial protein production was enhanced in high CO2-treatments, suggesting a positive effect of community richness on this function and on carbon cycling by bacteria.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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