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  • 1
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Pages: Online Ressource , Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    ISBN: 9781862392281
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 282
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  • 2
    Call number: 9/M 07.0372
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Description / Table of Contents: Imaging, mapping and modelling continental lithosphere extension and breakup: an introduction, G D Karner, G Manatschal and L M Pinheiro. - Break-up of the Newfoundland-Iberia rift, B E Tucholke, D S Sawyer and J-C Sibuet. - Structure of the Flemish Cap margin, Newfoundland: insights into mantle and crustal processes during continental breakup, J R Hopper, T Funck and B E Tucholke. - Early Cretaceous motion of Flemish Cap with respect to North America: implications on the formation of Orphan Basin and SE Flemish Cap-Galicia Bank conjugate margins, J-C Sibuet, S P Srivastava, M Enachescu and G D Karner. - The formation of non-volcanic rifted margins by the progressive extension of the lithosphere: the example of the West Iberian margin, T J Reston. - Roles of lithospheric strain softening and heterogeneity in determining the geometry of rifts and continental margins, R S Huismans and C Beaumont. - The role of gravitational instabilities, density structure, and extension rate in the evolution of continental margins, E Burov. - A dynamic model of rifting between Galicia Bank and Flemish Cap during opening of the North Atlantic Ocean, D L Harry and S Grandell. - A kinematic modelling approach to lithosphere deformation and basin formation: application to the Black Sea, S S Egan and D J Meredith. - Early kinematic history of the Goban Spur rifted margin derived from a new model of continental breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation, D Healy and N J Kusznir. - The boundary between continental rifting and seafloor spreading in the Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea, A M Goodliffe and B Taylor. - Nature of the continent-ocean transition zone along the southern Australian continental margin: a comparison of the Naturaliste Plateau, SW Australia, and the central Great Australian Bight sectors, N G Direen, I Borissova, H M J Stagg, J B Colwell and P A Symonds. - Constraints on the deformation and rupturing of continental lithosphere of the Red Sea: the transition from rifting to drifting, J R Cochran and G D Karner. - Observations from the Alpine Tethys and Iberia Newfoundland margins pertinent to the interpretation of continental breakup, G Manatschal, O Muntener, L L Lavier, T A Minshull and G Peron-Pinvidic. - Overview of tectonic settings related to the rifting and opening of Mesozoic ocean basins in the Eastern Tethys: Oman, Himalayas and Eastern Mediterranean regions, A H F Robertson. - Continental lithospheric thinning and breakup in response to upwelling divergent mantle flow: application to the Woodlark, Newfoundland, and Iberia margins, N J Kusznir G D Karner. - Observations from the Basin and Range Province (western United States) pertinent to the interpretation of regional detachment faults, N Christie-Blick, M H Anders, S Wills, C D Walker and B Renik. - Effects of initial weakness on rift architecture, S Dyksterhuis, P Rey, R D Müller and L Moresi. - Incompressible viscous formulations for deformation and yielding of the lithosphere, L Moresi, H-B Muhlhaus, V Lemiale and D May.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: vi, 482 S.
    ISBN: 1862392285
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 282
    Classification: A.3.15.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Description / Table of Contents: This book summarizes our present understanding of the formation of passive continental margins and their ocean–continent transitions. It outlines the geological, geophysical and petrological observations that characterize extensional systems, and how such observations can guide and constrain dynamic and kinematic models of continental lithosphere extension, breakup and the inception of organized sea-floor spreading. The book focuses on imaging, mapping and modelling lithospheric extensional systems, at both the regional scale using dynamic models to the local scale of individual basins using kinematic models, with an emphasis on capturing the extensional history of the Iberia and Newfoundland margins. The results from a number of other extensional regimes are presented to provide comparisons with the North Atlantic studies; these range from the Tethyan realm and the northern Red Sea to the western and southern Australian margins, the Basin and Range Province, and the Woodlark basin of Papua New Guinea. All of these field studies, combined with lessons learnt from the modelling, are used to address fundamental questions about the extreme deformation of continental lithosphere.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (482 Seiten)
    ISBN: 9781862392281
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2007-12-18
    Description: AbstactThis Special Publication is a direct outcome of a small but dedicated group of researchers who met in Pontresina, Switzerland, to review and define the fundamental observations characterizing extensional systems and their application in guiding and constraining modelling efforts and results. The various summaries of the keynote addresses give an objective overview of the state of the art in modelling lithospheric extensional systems, both from the regional scale using dynamic models to individual basins using kinematic models with an emphasis on capturing the extensional history of the Iberia and Newfoundland margins. At the heart of all of these efforts is a simple question: Exactly what mechanisms allow the continental lithosphere to be thinned to the point of rupture? Related questions are: (1) Do crustal and mantle faults play a major role in this thinning process? If so, what is their geometry and does their importance and geometry change with time? (2) Are there other mechanisms of lithospheric and crustal thinning that cannot be imaged on seismic sections? (3) How is deformation accommodated in space and time? (4) What role do inherited mechanical, thermal and/or chemical heterogeneities play in controlling strain distribution and localization? (5) When, how and to what degree does magma production affect the distribution and localization of extension? And (6) what is the stratigraphic record of continental extension and how does it document the extension of the crust and thinning of the lithospheric mantle? The aim of this Special Publication is to address many of these fundamental questions concerning the extreme extension and thinning of continental lithosphere.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-09-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0166-6851
    Keywords: Diagnosis ; Epidemiology ; Mixed infection ; Plasmodium falciparum ; Plasmodium malariae ; Plasmodium ovale ; Plasmodium vivax ; Polymerase chain reaction ; [abr] PCR; polymerase chain reaction ; [abr] ssrRNA; small subunit ribosomal RNA
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Two separate sets of experiments with digital ocean-bottom seismographs (DOBS) and airguns, on continental rise areas off Madeira and west of Portugal, produced en echelon second arrivals from the sediment layer on record sections. Traveltime and synthetic seismograrn modelling indicate that the arrivals represent multiply-reflected refracted phases which have undergone reflection within the sediment layer itself. Further, although the P-wave contrast at the intrasediment reflecting horizon is relatively small, the modelling indicates a large downward increase in S-wave velocity from 100–250 m s−1 (Poisson's ratio of at least 0.42) to about 1200 m s−1 (Poisson's ratio of about 0.25). A reflection event can usually be found on reflection profiles along the refraction lines at almost exactly the same ‘depth’ as the intrasediment reflector. In one case such an event can be traced to a nearby Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) borehole where it is associated with the transition from ooze to chalk. This, and other circumstantial evidence, suggests that the intrasediment reflector marks an important increase in lithification within the sediment layer. If so it means that, in future, straightforward OBS experiments may be used to measure the depth of this increase without resorting to the drill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-246X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: An 80 km long reversed seismic refraction line (Line 5) was shot over the Tagus Abyssal Plain off Portugal. The main P-wave reflected and refracted phases were modelled both for traveltime and amplitude. The resulting P-wave velocity/depth model has the following features: (a) an extremely thin crust of about 2 km; (b) the absence of oceanic layer 3; and (c) very low upper mantle velocities between 7.6 and 7.9 km s-1. This very unusual seismic velocity crustal structure is quite unlike thinned continental crust but is remarkably similar to the seismic crustal structures found at Atlantic fracture zones, and in particular to the structures found in profiles shot along the transform valley and near ridge-transform intersections. A magnetic anomaly chart seems to allow the possibility of several fracture zones one of which could intersect the centre of Line 5.As an alternative to the fracture zone hypothesis we show that if the ocean–continent transition in the Tagus Abyssal Plain is located at about 11°30'W, in a symmetric position with respect to the ocean–continent transition in the conjugate South Newfoundland Basin, then magnetic anomalies can be modelled simply by assuming sea-floor spreading west of 11°45'W at 10 mm yr-1 beginning at M11 time (133 Myr BP), and blocks of rifted continental crust to the east. The location of the proposed ocean–continent transition in the Tagus Abyssal Plain is marked by a well-defined N–S linear magnetic anomaly which is adjacent to the oldest sea-floor spreading block. East of the proposed ocean–continent transition there is an increase in the depth to basement similar to that found east of the ocean–continent transition in the Iberia Abyssal Plain and elsewhere. This model also allows us to explain why Purdy's (1975) seismic refraction line A–AR in the Tagus Abyssal Plain cannot be interpreted as a conventional reversed pair because most of Line A was shot over the ocean–continent transition zone and most of Line AR over thinned continental crust.Remarkably similar velocity/depth structures to that under Line 5 are found close to the ocean–continent transition zone off the whole of western Iberia, in areas which show no clear evidence of fracture zones. Therefore it appears more likely that the seismic structure of Line 5 is due to its proximity to the ocean–continent transition than to a local association with a fracture zone and further, that its structure is typical of this transition off the western margin of Iberia. We also suspect that the low upper mantle velocities associated with the ocean–continent transition indicate the widespread occurrence of serpentinized peridotite.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Terra nova 14 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3121
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: This paper presents new geochemical data on gas-hydrate-bearing mud volcanoes discovered for the first time in the Gulf of Cadiz during cruises TTR9 and TTR10 of the R/V Professor Logachev in 1999–2000. The estimated gas hydrate content is 3–16% of sediment volume and 5–31% of pore space volume. Estimated values of the water isotopic composition for the Ginsburg mud volcano are very heavy for δ18O (up to +53‰) and light for δD (up to − 210‰). Gas released from the hydrates contains 81% of C1 and 19% of C2+. The inferred source of the gas in the hydrates is enriched in C2–C6 (≤ 5%), indicating that the gas has a thermogenic origin. Gas hydrate of cubic structure II should be formed from a gas of such composition. It is interpreted that the composition of the mud volcano fluid corresponds to deep oil basins below the Gulf of Cadiz.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Mud volcanism in the Gulf of Cadiz occurs over a large area extending from the shelf to more than 3500 m water depth and is triggered by compressional stress along the European–African plate boundary, affecting a deeply faulted sedimentary sequence of locally more than 5 km thickness. The investigation of six active sites shows that mud volcano (MV) fluids, on average, are highly enriched in CH4, Li, B, and Sr and depleted in Mg, K, and Br. The purity of the fluids is largely controlled by the intensity of upward directed flow. Flow rates could be constrained by numerical modelling and vary between 〈0.05 and 15 cm yr−1. Application of δD–δ18O systematics identifies clay mineral dehydration, most likely within Mesozoic and Tertiary shales and marls, as the major source of fluids. Hence, Cl and Na in the pore fluids are mostly depleted below seawater values, following a general trend of dilution. However, deviations from this trend occur and are likely caused by the dissolution of halite in evaporitic deposits. Other secondary processes overprinting the original fluid composition may occur along the flow path, such as dissolution of anhydrite or gypsum and/or the formation of calcite and dolomite. Different sources of fluids are also indicated by variations in 87Sr/86Sr, which range from 0.7086 to 0.7099 at the different sites. Dehydration may be induced primarily by overburden and tectonic compression; however, very high concentrations of Li and B, specifically at Captain Arutyunov MV (CAMV) indicate additional leaching at temperatures above 150 °C, which could be explained by the injection of hot fluids along deep penetrating, major E–W strike–slip fault systems. This hypothesis is supported by the occurrence of generally thermogenic, but significantly CH4-enriched, light volatile hydrocarbon gases at CAMV which cannot be explained by shallow microbial methanogenesis. Li and Li/B ratios from different types of hot and cold vents are used to infer that high temperature signals seem to be preserved at various cold vent locations and indicate a closer coupling of both systems in continental margin environments than outlined in previous studies.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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