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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-06-25
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (2008): C08031, doi:10.1029/2008JC004726.
    Description: The shoaling of the nonlinear internal tide in Massachusetts Bay is studied with a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model. The results are compared with current and temperature observations obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter experiment which took place in September 2001. The model shows how the approaching nonlinear undular bore interacts strongly with a shoaling bottom, offshore of where KdV theory predicts polarity switching should occur. It is shown that the shoaling process is dominated by nonlinearity, and the model results are interpreted with the aid of a two-layer nonlinear but hydrostatic model. After interacting with the shoaling bottom, the undular bore emerges on the shallow shelf inshore of the 30-m isobath as a nonlinear internal tide with a range of possible shapes, all of which are found in the available observational record.
    Description: A. Scotti began this project as a Postdoctoral Scholar at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, with support from the Johnson Foundation and the USGS. Further support was provided to Scotti by the Office of Naval Research under grants N00014-01-1-0172, N00014-03-1-0553, and N00014-05-1-0361, and by NSF under grant OCE 07-29636. R. Beardsley was supported by ONR under grants N00014-98-1- 0059, N00014-00-1-0210, and the Smith Chair in Coastal Physical Oceanography. J. Pineda was supported by ONR under grants N00014-01-1-0172, and by a WHOIOcean Life Institute Fellowship.
    Keywords: Nonlinear internal waves ; Internal tide ; Shoaling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
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    Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union and the American Geophysical Union
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2011. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. The definitive version was published in Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 18 (2011): 71-79, doi:10.5194/npg-18-71-2011.
    Description: The region of the Middle East around the Red Sea (between 32° E and 44° E longitude and 12° N and 28° N latitude) is a currently undocumented hotspot for atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). Satellite imagery shows evidence that this region is prone to relatively high occurrence of AGWs compared to other areas in the world, and reveals the spatial characteristics of these waves. The favorable conditions for wave propagation in this region are illustrated with three typical cases of AGWs propagating in the lower troposphere over the sea. Using weakly nonlinear long wave theory and the observed characteristic wavelengths we obtain phase speeds which are consistent with those observed and typical for AGWs, with the Korteweg-de Vries theory performing slightly better than Benjamin-Davis-Acrivos-Ono theory as far as phase speeds are concerned. ERS-SAR and Envisat-ASAR satellite data analysis between 1993 and 2008 reveals signatures consistent with horizontally propagating large-scale internal waves. These signatures cover the entire Red Sea and are more frequently observed between April and September, although they also occur during the rest of the year. The region's (seasonal) propagation conditions for AGWs, based upon average vertical atmospheric stratification profiles suggest that many of the signatures identified in the satellite images are atmospheric internal waves.
    Description: This research was conducted with support from KAUST (King Abdullah University for Science and Technology) in collaboration with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Biology Department. Some support was also provided by a Treaty of Windsor Grant awarded by the British Council (Portugal).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Limnology and Oceanography 58 (2013): 1531-1545, doi:10.4319/lo.2013.58.5.1531.
    Description: In summer 2010, a bleaching event decimated the abundant reef flat coral Stylophora pistillata in some areas of the central Red Sea, where a series of coral reefs 100–300 m wide by several kilometers long extends from the coastline to about 20 km offshore. Mortality of corals along the exposed and protected sides of inner (inshore) and mid and outer (offshore) reefs and in situ and satellite sea surface temperatures (SSTs) revealed that the variability in the mortality event corresponded to two spatial scales of temperature variability: 300 m across the reef flat and 20 km across a series of reefs. However, the relationship between coral mortality and habitat thermal severity was opposite at the two scales. SSTs in summer 2010 were similar or increased modestly (0.5°C) in the outer and mid reefs relative to 2009. In the inner reef, 2010 temperatures were 1.4°C above the 2009 seasonal maximum for several weeks. We detected little or no coral mortality in mid and outer reefs. In the inner reef, mortality depended on exposure. Within the inner reef, mortality was modest on the protected (shoreward) side, the most severe thermal environment, with highest overall mean and maximum temperatures. In contrast, acute mortality was observed in the exposed (seaward) side, where temperature fluctuations and upper water temperature values were relatively less extreme. Refuges to thermally induced coral bleaching may include sites where extreme, high-frequency thermal variability may select for coral holobionts preadapted to, and physiologically condition corals to withstand, regional increases in water temperature.
    Description: J.C.B.S. was partially supported by Fundac¸a˜o para a Cieˆncia e a Tecnologia (project PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2011) and by the European Regional Development Fund through the Operational Competitiveness Programme (National Strategic Reference Framework). Kristen Davis was partially supported by a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution postdoctoral scholarship. This research was supported by KAUST with awards USA 00002 and KSA 00011.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
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    Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union
    Publication Date: 2018-07-02
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Marine Ecology Progress Series 595 (2018): 105-122, doi:10.3354/meps12561.
    Description: Vertical and cross-shore distributions and abundances of shallow-water barnacle larvae were characterized in La Jolla, southern California (USA), during a 2 yr period. Five stations located within 1 km of shore and ranging from 4-12 m water depths were sampled intensively in 2 m depth intervals during 27 cruises throughout spring-summer (April-July) and fall-winter (October-December) of 2014 and 2015. Larval abundances significantly decreased from 2014 to 2015, which could be related to the arrival of a warm-water anomaly (the so-called ‘Blob’) in 2014 and El Niño conditions in 2015. Despite the presence of these large-scale regional disturbances, vertical and cross-shore larval distributions were consistent throughout the 2 yr study period. Early-stage nauplii and Chthamalus fissus cyprids tracked bottom depth, and cyprids were on average deeper than nauplii. Vertical distributions were not related to the mid-depth of the thermocline or thermal stratification. Early-stage nauplii had a broader cross-shore distribution than cyprids, which were concentrated at inshore stations. Nearshore cyprid concentration had a positive relationship with thermal stratification, and the center of distribution of cyprids was farther offshore during fall-winter when stratification decreased. These results suggest that thermal stratification elicits enhanced behavioral control of cyprids to remain close to shore and reach the adult habitat.
    Description: This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants OCE-1357290, OCE-1357327, OCE-1630459, and OCE- 1630474. Support was also provided by the University of San Diego and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Keywords: Barnacle larvae ; Chthamalus fissus ; Early-stage nauplii ; Cyprids ; Hydrographic and hydrodynamic conditions
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
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    Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact: bco-dmo-data@whoi.edu
    Publication Date: 2020-01-08
    Description: Dataset: NLT time series: 2014-2016 temperature and depth
    Description: This dataset includes temperature and water depth time series data from intertidal, 1, 2, 5, 6, and 8-meter sites located nearshore Calumet Park, La Jolla, Southern California, April 2014 through November 2016. For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at: https://www.bco-dmo.org/dataset/709181
    Description: NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) OCE-1357290, NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) OCE-1357327
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Continental Shelf Research 26 (2006): 885-901, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2006.01.017.
    Description: The effects of the 1997-98 and 2002-04 El Ni˜no on the upper waters in the con- tinental shelf and slope regions off northwestern Baja California are explored with data from eight cruises taken in late spring from 1998 to 2004 and the summers of 1997 and 1998. Geostrophic velocities were calculated referenced to a specific vol- ume anomaly surface separating the southward flowing California Current waters from the waters advected to the north by the California Undercurrent. The result- ing fields show equatorward flow near the surface except in the summer of 1997, when a poleward jet was found in the upper 40 dbars. This shallow jet advected anomalously warm and salty waters characteristic of the 1997-98 El Ni˜no, with its core found within 20-30 kms from the coast. By spring of 1998, the waters brought into the region by the jet had mixed across the pycnoline with the salty California Undercurrent waters below, resulting in high salinity levels on the density surfaces corresponding to the otherwise fresh California Current waters (25-26¾t). By con- trast, the 2002-04 El Ni˜no stands out for the very fresh and cold waters found on the same density surfaces in late spring of 2003 and 2004, marking a pronounced presence of subarctic waters. The fresh conditions found on the latter years repre- sent a nearshore expresion of the anomalous intrusion of subarctic waters observed 50-150 km from the coast of Southern California and Punta Eugenia, reported from July 2002 until April 2003. Our results suggest that the presence of this intrusion has continued to influence the region at least until May 2004.
    Description: This work was supported by the US NSF (OCE-9986627 and OCE-0083976).
    Keywords: El Nino phenomena ; Coastal currents ; Coastal upwelling ; Hydrography ; California Current System ; Mexico ; Northwestern Baja California ; Geographic bounding coordinates: (33◦00’N, 117◦45’W) – (31◦40’N, 116◦30’W)
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2008. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Population Ecology 51 (2009): 17-32, doi:10.1007/s10144-008-0118-0.
    Description: Research of complex systems and problems, entities with many dependencies, is often reductionist. The reductionist approach splits systems or problems into different components, and then addresses these components one by one. This approach has been used in the study of recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic (bottom dwelling) species. Another approach examines benthic population dynamics by looking at a small set of processes. This approach is statistical or model oriented. Simplified approaches identify “macrcoecological” patterns or attempt to identify and model the essential, “first order” elements of the system. The complexity of the recruitment and population dynamics problems stems from the number of processes that can potentially influence benthic populations, including (1) larval pool dynamics, (2) larval transport, (3) settlement, and (4) post-settlement biotic and abiotic processes, as well as larval production. Moreover, these processes are non-linear, some interact, and they may operate at disparate scales. This contribution discusses reductionist and simplified approaches to study benthic recruitment and population dynamics of bottom dwelling marine invertebrates. We first address complexity in two processes known to influence recruitment, larval transport, and post settlement survival to reproduction, and discuss the difficulty in understanding recruitment by looking at relevant processes individually and in isolation. We then address the simplified approach, which reduces the number of processes and makes the problem manageable. We discuss how simplifications and “broad-brush first order approaches” may muddle our understanding of recruitment. Lack of empirical determination of the fundamental processes often results in mistaken inferences, and processes and parameters used in some models can bias our view of processes influencing recruitment. We conclude with a discussion on how to reconcile complex and simplified approaches. Although it appears impossible to achieve a full mechanistic understanding of recruitment by studying all components of the problem in isolation, we suggest that knowledge of these components is essential for simplifying and understanding the system beyond probabilistic description and modeling.
    Description: We wish to thank WHOI’s Ocean Life Institute for support
    Keywords: Recruitment ; Benthic populations ; Population dynamics ; Larval transport ; Larval dispersal ; Settlement ; Complexity ; Models
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 31 (2004): L22307, doi:10.1029/2004GL021052.
    Description: We report on near-bottom waves of elevation with amplitude nearly half the 25 m water column, very steep, and propagating into a sheared turbulent wave-guide. The waves contained trapped cores transporting parcels of water shoreward. These large waves depart strongly from weakly-nonlinear and weakly-nonhydrostatic conditions and challenge established paradigms. They can also represent an important factor in the across-shore transport of plankton and contaminants.
    Description: Funding provided by ONR, grants N00014-01-1-0172 and N00014-03-1-0553.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2012. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Inter-Research for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Marien Ecology Progress Series 476 (2013): 141-151, doi:10.3354/meps10186.
    Description: Gravid adults of the common intertidal barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) brood fully developed larvae until individuals perceive some cue from the environment that triggers synchronous larval release. The prevailing hypothesis has been that phytoplankton blooms trigger release because they provide a food source for nauplius larvae. Through observations and field experiments, we tested the hypothesis that turbidity from any source, not just phytoplankton blooms, can trigger release. We documented five larval release events at three sites in the northeastern United States. Two events coincided with chlorophyll increases, and all five coincided with turbidity increases. In experiments, the larval release response was equivalent when adults were exposed to diatoms or inert synthetic beads, and it was significantly higher than under exposure to filtered seawater. We also tested the hypothesis that turbidity can decrease the risk of cannibalism for newly-released nauplii. Under experimentally manipulated conditions, adults consumed significantly fewer nauplii in a high-turbidity environment. We suggest that reproduction in this species may have evolved to coincide roughly with the local onset of winter/spring phytoplankton blooms, but the timing of larval release may have been fine-tuned further by cannibalism and predation pressures. The potential for turbid conditions to serve as a refuge for planktonic larvae of other marine organisms merits further investigation.
    Description: Support for this work came from a National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship and a student award from the Coastal Ocean Institute at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (both to JG).
    Keywords: Synchrony ; Turbidity ; Reproduction ; Larvae ; Cannibalism ; Barnacles
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120 (2015): 2555–2570, doi:10.1002/2014JC010564.
    Description: We tested the hypothesis that humpback whales aggregate at the southern flank of Stellwagen Bank (SB) in response to internal waves (IWs) generated semidiurnally at Race Point (RP) channel because of the presence of their preferred prey, planktivorous fish, which in turn respond to zooplankton concentrated by the predictable IWs. Analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images indicates that RP IWs approach the southern flank of SB frequently (∼62% of the images). Published reports of whale sighting data and archived SAR images point to a coarse spatial coincidence between whales and Race Point IWs at SB's southern flank. The responses of whales to IWs were evaluated via sightings and behavior of humpback whales, and IWs were observed in situ by acoustic backscatter and temperature measurements. Modeling of IWs complemented the observations, and results indicate a change of ∼0.4 m/s in current velocity, and ∼1.5 Pa in dynamic pressure near the bottom, which may be sufficient for bottom fish to detect the IWs. However, fish were rare in our acoustic observations, and fish response to the IWs could not be evaluated. RP IWs do not represent the leading edge of the internal tide, and they may have less mass-transport potential than typical coastal IWs. There was large interannual variability in whale sightings at SB's southern flank, with decreases in both numbers of sightings and proportion of sightings where feeding was observed from 2008 to 2013. Coincidence of whales and IWs was inconsistent, and results do not support the hypothesis.
    Description: We would also like to acknowledge funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant (Woods Hole), the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the ESA, and the German Aerospace Center.
    Description: 2015-10-02
    Keywords: Humpback whales ; Nonlinear internal waves ; Shallow temperate bank ; Ecological hotspots
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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