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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: continental shelf ; estuaries ; mass balance ; nitrogen ; North Atlantic ; nutrient budget ; phosphorus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Five large rivers that discharge on the western North Atlantic continental shelf carry about 45% of the nitrogen (N) and 70% of the phosphorus (P) that others estimate to be the total flux of these elements from the entire North Atlantic watershed, including North, Central and South America, Europe, and Northwest Africa. We estimate that 61 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 20 · 109 moles y−1 of P from the large rivers are buried with sediments in their deltas, and that an equal amount of N and P from the large rivers is lost to the shelf through burial of river sediments that are deposited directly on the continental slope. The effective transport of active N and P from land to the shelf through the very large rivers is thus reduced to 292 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 13 · 109 moles y−1 of P. The remaining riverine fluxes from land must pass through estuaries. An analysis of annual total N and total P budgets for various estuaries around the North Atlantic revealed that the net fractional transport of these nutrients through estuaries to the continental shelf is inversely correlated with the log mean residence time of water in the system. This is consistent with numerous observations of nutrient retention and loss in temperate lakes. Denitrification is the major process responsible for removing N in most estuaries, and the fraction of total N input that is denitrified appears to be directly proportional to the log mean water residence time. In general, we estimate that estuarine processes retain and remove 30–65% of the total N and 10–55% of the total P that would otherwise pass into the coastal ocean. The resulting transport through estuaries to the shelf amounts to 172–335 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 11–19 · 109 moles y−1 of P. These values are similar to the effective contribution from the large rivers that discharge directly on the shelf. For the North Atlantic shelf as a whole, N fluxes from major rivers and estuaries exceed atmospheric deposition by a factor of 3.5–4.7, but this varies widely among regions of the shelf. For example, on the U.S. Atlantic shelf and on the northwest European shelf, atmospheric deposition of N may exceed estuarine exports. Denitrification in shelf sediments exceeds the combined N input from land and atmosphere by a factor of 1.4–2.2. This deficit must be met by a flux of N from the deeper ocean. Burial of organic matter fixed on the shelf removes only a small fraction of the total N and P input (2–12% of N from land and atmosphere; 1–17% of P), but it may be a significant loss for P in the North Sea and some other regions. The removal of N and P in fisheries landings is very small. The gross exchange of N and P between the shelf and the open ocean is much larger than inputs from land and, for the North Atlantic shelf as a whole, it may be much larger than the N and P removed through denitrification, burial, and fisheries. Overall, the North Atlantic continental shelf appears to remove some 700–950· 109 moles of N each year from the deep ocean and to transport somewhere between 18 and 30 · 109 moles of P to the open sea. If the N and P associated with riverine sediments deposited on the continental slope are included in the total balance, the net flux of N to the shelf is reduced by 60 · 109 moles y−1 and the P flux to the ocean is increased by 20 · 109 moles y−1. These conclusions are quite tentative, however, because of large uncertainties in our estimates of some important terms in the shelf mass balance.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Solvent extraction and evaporative concentration steps are often used in procedures for the measurement of butyltins in environmental samples. As part of a larger study utilizing radiolabeled butyltins, the loss and fractionation of butyltins during sample preparation was investigated. TBT, DBT, and MBT were extracted from acidified seawater by hexane with efficiencies of about 95–99, 50–60 and 11% respectively. In addition, losses of about 70% of DBT were found during evaporative concentration of hexane. A variety of sediment extraction procedures were tested and none were found to be highly efficient for total butyltin extraction.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Colonies of the temperate coral Astrangia danae occur naturally with and without zooxanthellae. Basal nitrogen excretion rates of nonsymbiotic colonies increased with increasing feeding frequency [average excretion rate was 635 ng-at N (mg-at tissue-N)-1 h-1]. Reduced excretion rates of symbiotic colonies were attributed to N uptake by the zooxanthellae. Nitrogen uptake rates of the zooxanthellae averaged 8 ng-at N (106 cells)-1 h-1 in the dark and 21 ng-at N (106 cells)-1 h-1 at 200 μEin m-2 s-1. At these rates the zooxanthellae could provide 54% of the daily basal N requirement of the coral if all of the recycled N was translocated. Basal respiration rates were 172 nmol O2 cm-2 h-1 for starved colonies and 447 nmol O2 cm-2 h-1 for colonies fed three times per week. There were no significant differences between respiration rates of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic colonies. N excretion and respiration rates of fed (symbiotic and nonsymbiotic) colonies increased greatly soon after feeding. N absorption efficiencies decreased with increasing feeding frequency. A N mass balance, constructed for hypothetical situations of nonsymbiotic and symbiotic (3×106 zooxanthellae cm-2) colonies, starved and fed 15 μg-at N cm-2wk-1, showed that the presence of symbionts could double the N growth rate of feeding colonies, and reduce the turnover-time of starved ones, but could not provide all of the N requirements of starved colonies. Rates of secondary production, estimated from rates of photosynthesis and respiration were similar to those estimated for reef corals.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Calcification, photosynthesis and respiration of the scleractinian coral Astrangia danae were calculated from the changes in total alkalinity, pH, calculated total CO2, and oxygen concentration produced by colonies incubated in glass jars. A correction for changes in ammonia, nitrate and nitrite was taken into account and the method evaluated. The fluxes of oxygen and CO2 were highly correlated (r=0.99). The statistical error of alkalinity determinations was less than 10% of the changes observed in the slowest calcifying samples. Metabolism of polyparium alone was estimated by difference after removal of tissue and reincubation of bare corallum. Zooxanthellae concentration in the polyps was obtained from cell counts made on homogenates of polyp tissue. The calculated photosynthetic rate of the zooxanthellae in vivo was 25 μmol O2 (108 cell)-1 h-1 at a light intensity of 120 μEin m-2 s-1. In corals having 0.5x109 zooxanthellae/dm2 of colony area up to 8% of the total photosynthesis was attributed to the corallum microcosm. Polyp respiration, photosynthesis, and CaCO3 uptake rates were all much higher than rates previously reported from A. danae, apparently because in these experiments the organisms were better fed. This increased photosynthesis in turn enhanced calcification still further. The symbiosis therefore appears to provide a growth advantage even to fed corals, under the conditions of these experiments.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The combined effects of temperature, light and symbiont density on the metabolic rate and calcification of the temperate coral Astrangia danae were studied experimentally using colonies containing different concentrations of zooxanthellae. After acclimation to five temperatures between 6.5° and 27°C, and incubation at three light levels and in darkness, respiration and photosynthesis were measured and corrected for rates due to commensals alone. Calcification rates were regressed on zooxanthellae concentration and production in order to define “symbiotic” and “non-symbiotic” averages, and the enhancement of calcification by symbiotic interactions in the polyps. Respiration by the polyparium varied less with temperature between 11.5° and 23°C than that of the commensals, suggesting physiological acclimation by the coral tissue. In-vivo zooxanthellae photosynthesis increased linearly with temperature and was near its maximum at 400 μEin m−2 s−1, but the photosynthesis of the endolithic algae of the corallum varied little between 11.5° and 27°C. Calcification at any given temperature was near its maximum at 40 μEin m−2 s−1 in both symbiotic and non-symbiotic corals. CaCO3 deposition increased linearly with temperature in non-symbiotic colonies and in symbiotic colonies incubated in the dark. In symbiotic colonies, calcification in the light increased above these basic rates as temperature rose above 15°C. Below 15°C, symbiotic interactions failed to stimulate calcification, apparently due both to a lowering of zooxanthellae photosynthesis and to a decrease in the enhancing effect of any given level of primary production.
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