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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 4 (1958), S. 382 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Methods are developed for testing binary system phase-equilibrium data for thermodynamic consistency when the more volatile component is above its critical temperature. The isothermal case with varying pressure and the isobaric case with varying temperature are considered individually. The rigorous form of the Duhem equation is employed rather than the simplified one, which for binary systems is inconsistent with the phase rule. Although derived for the specific case given in the title, the relationships developed are applicable to all conditions of binary systems. Sample calculations illustrating the methods are included.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 6 (1960), S. 115-123 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effectiveness of fluidized beds is limited by the presence of density fluctuations such as those caused by gas bubbles. The size and frequency of such bubbles were measured in airfluidized beds of glass beads and silica-alumina catalyst with a gamma-ray absorption technique used.The results showed that the gas bubbles developed owing to an influx of gas from the continuous dense phase. With increasing elevation in the bed the volumetric rate of bubble flow approached as a limit the total air flow minus the flow through the dense phase corresponding to minimum fluidization. The growth rate of bubble diameter was as much as 0.17 in./in. of elevation. Fluidization was most uniform with the cracking catalyst, for which the apparent density of the dense phase decreased with increasing gas velocity.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experiments were conducted on the absorption of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine in a very short wetted-wall column.When the absorption was effected from pure carbon dioxide streams, the results conformed to a theoretical relation for absorption combined with very fast second-order reaction. This is in accordance with expectations based on the probable mechanism and rate of the reaction. The data indicate that there is no appreciable effect of nonequilibrium at the interface for this particular reaction system over the range of exposure times studied.When mixed gas streams were used, it was necessary to resort to empiricism to correlate the data, although the correlating expression arose from theoretical considerations.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 4 (1958), S. 231-239 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 4 (1958), S. 249-256 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The rate of absorption of nitrogen peroxide into water at 25° and 40°C. has been found to be a linear function of the concentration of nitrogen tetroxide in the gas phase and directly proportional to the interfacial partial pressure of the same species.The rate of absorption is independent of gas velocity over a range of ReG from 170 to 350. The results plotted as absorption rate divided by interfacial partial pressure of nitrogen tetroxide show no effect of liquid rate or contact time between gas and liquid over a tenfold range of contact time from 0.03 to 0.3 sec. This indicates that the rate-controlling step during nitrogen dioxide absorption into water is the rate of hydrolysis of nitrogen tetroxide.The absorption rate decreases with increasing temperature from 25° to 40°C., owing to the shift of the equilibrium in the gas phase away from the reacting species nitrogen tetroxide toward nitrogen dioxide and owing to the the decreased solubility of nitrogen tetroxide in water. The effect of these factors on absorption more than offsets the effect of the increase in reaction rate and higher diffusivity on absorption at 40°C.The reaction rate constant for the hydrolysis of nitrogen tetroxide has been determined and the solubility of dissolved but unreacted nitrogen tetroxide in equilibrium with gaseous nitrogen tetroxide has been found.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 6 (1960), S. 494-500 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pure phosgene gas was dissolved in short laminar jets of aqueous solution, and the results were interpreted with an unsteady state absorption-plus-reaction theory. Absorption rates of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide into water in the same equipment support this interpretation. The solubility of phosgene in water at 25°C. has been estimated from the absorption rates as 0.069 g.mole/(liter) (atm.). The estimated heat of solution is 6,800 cal./g.mole. At 16° and 25°C. the effect of a chemical reaction between phosgene and water on the absorption rate in a jet appears to be almost negligible, but at 45°C. a first-order reaction rate constant of 75 sec.-1 can be derived from the absorption rates.From absorption measurements with short jets and sodium hydroxide solutions so strong that a pseudo-first-order reaction accompanied absorption, the reaction rate constant for the bimolecular reaction between dissolved phosgene and the hydroxyl ion was estimated. A value of 1.6 × 104 liters/(g. mole) (sec.) was obtained at 25°C. in 1-N sodium hydroxide; at 35°C. in the same solution the estimated value was 2.9 × 104. There appears to be a slight increase in the reaction-rate constant with the ionic strength of the solution.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 15 (1969), S. 442-449 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An absolute rate theory based on a plausible model of the activated state, was developed for the interfacial kinetics of crystal growth from the melt. Except for liquid metals the theory predicts the growth rates of pure materials within about an order of magnitude. A microinterferometric technique was employed to observe liquid compositions near the faces of crystals growing from binary melts. For the simple eutectic system composed of salol and thymol, the theory represents the composition and temperature dependence of the growth rate.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 1 (1955), S. 401-409 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements were made at 50°C. for the ternary systems acetone-methanol-chloroform, acetone-methanol-carbon tetrachloride, and acetone-methanol-methyl acetate, by means of an improved vapor-recirculation type of apparatus. The complete range of concentrations was investigated, including six of the seven constituent binary systems. Chemical methods, supplemented by density and refractive-index measurements, were used for analysis.Results are presented in the form of activity coefficients γ as a function of various concentrations. Binary and ternary constants for the three-suffix Margules equations were determined by plots of (log γ) / (1-x)2 as a function of the mole fraction x. Such equations have been found to represent both the binary and the ternary data adequately except in the system containing both methanol and carbon tetrachloride. For these mixtures a simplified four-suffix equation, including a single ternary constant, correlates binary and ternary equilibrium data.The data indicate that reliable estimates of ternary equilibria can be based on the assumption that the ternary constant C* is zero for mixtures in which all deviations from Raoult's Law are positive. This is interpreted as indicating that the probability of existence of trimolecular aggregates, two- or three-component, in ternary solutions is no greater than the average of probabilities of existence of trimolecular aggregates in the constituent binary systems.Based on equations of the Margules type, a procedure is outlined for determining binary constants rapidly and for planning experiments whereby a ternary system may be completely investigated with the aid of very few measurements.The composition changes that the accompany differential distillation of the three ternary mixtures are described qualitatively in terms of the shape of the vapor-pressure-composition surfaces.
    Additional Material: 23 Ill.
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