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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Imaging and altimeter-type radar employed in orbiting spacecraft for high resolution mapping, scattering cross section studies, climatology, etc
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Dealiased SEASAT SEASAT A Scatterometer System SASS vector winds obtained during the Gulf Of Alaska SEASAT Experiment GOASEX program are processed to obtain superobservations centered on a one degree by one degree grid. The grid. The results provide values for the combined effects of mesoscale variability and communication noise on the individual SASS winds. These superobservations winds are then processed further to obtain estimates of synoptic scale vector winds stress fields, the horizontal divergence of the wind, the curl of the wind stress and the vertical velocity at 200 m above the sea surface, each with appropriate standard deviations of the estimates for each grid point value. They also explain the concentration of water vapor, liquid water and precipitation found by means of the SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer at fronts and occlusions in terms of strong warm, moist air advection in the warm air sector accompanied by convergence in the friction layer. Their quality is far superior to that of analyses based on conventional data, which are shown to yield many inconsistencies.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:3810 , E84-10169 , NASA-CR-3810
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Reservations were expressed concerning the sum of squares wind recovery algorithm and the power law model function. The SAS sum of squares (SOS) method for recovering winds from backscatter data leads to inconsistent results when V pol and H pol winds are compared. A model function that does not use a power law and that accounts for sea surface temperature is needed and is under study both theoretically and by means of the SASS mode 4 data. Aspects of the determination of winds by means of scatterometry and of the utilization of vector wind data for meteorological forecasts are elaborated. The operational aspect of an intermittent assimilation scheme currently utilized for the specification of the initial value field is considered with focus on quantifying the absolute 12-hour linear displacement error of the movement of low centers.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:175526 , NASA-CR-175526 , E85-10091
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Backscatter measurements at upwind and crosswind are simulated for five incidence angles by means of the SASS-1 model function. The effects of communication noise and attitude errors are simulated by Monte Carlo methods, and the winds are recovered by both the Sum of Square (SOS) algorithm and a Maximum Likelihood Estimater (MLE). The SOS algorithm is shown to fail for light enough winds at all incidence angles and to fail to show areas of calm because backscatter estimates that were negative or that produced incorrect values of K sub p greater than one were discarded. The MLE performs well for all input backscatter estimates and returns calm when both are negative. The use of the SOS algorithm is shown to have introduced errors in the SASS-1 model function that, in part, cancel out the errors that result from using it, but that also cause disagreement with other data sources such as the AAFE circle flight data at light winds. Implications for future scatterometer systems are given.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:3839 , NASA-CR-3839
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Preliminary observations at 13.9 GHz of the radar backscatter and microwave emission from the sea were analyzed using data obtained by the radiometer scatterometer on Skylab. Results indicate approximately a square-law relationship between differential scattering coefficient and windspeed at angles of 40 deg to 50 deg, after correction for directional effect, over a range from about 4 up to about 25 meters/sec. The brightness temperature response was also observed, and considerable success was achieved in correcting it for atmospheric attenuation and emission. Measurements were made in June, 1973, over Hurricane Ava off the west coast of Mexico and over relatively calm conditions in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.
    Keywords: ASTRONAUTICS (GENERAL)
    Type: CUNY-43 , RSL-TR-254-2 , NASA-CR-141454
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: Side-looking radar spacecraft application to mapping, imagery, altimetry, geology, pedology, glaciology, agriculture, and oceanography
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-70387
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Conventional data obtained in 1983 are contrasted with SEASAT-A scatterometer and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) data to show how observations at a single station can be extended to an area of about 150,000 square km by means of remotely sensed data obtained in nine minutes. Superobservations at a one degree resolution for the vector winds were estimated along with their standard deviations. From these superobservations, the horizontal divergence, vector wind stress, and the curl of the wind stress can be found. Weather forecasting theory is discussed and meteorological charts of the North Pacific Ocean are presented. Synoptic meteorology as a technique is examined.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Frontiers of Remote Sensing of the Oceans and Troposphere from Air and Space Platforms; p 557-566
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The present status of the program to provide proof of concept for the idea that simultaneously observed radar scattering cross section measurements and passive microwave measurements can be used to determine the winds in the planetary boundary layer over the ocean, is given. The role of S193 in Skylab is providing the final clinching proof that an operational instrument will obtain data of great value to both meteorology and oceanography is described.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY
    Type: CONTRIB-118 , NOAA Sea Surface Topography from Space, Vol. 1; 20 p
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Data from infrared imaging systems and satellite infrared spectrometer (SIRS) for determining sea surface temperature and the atmospheric structure in cloudless areas over the oceans are discussed. Although some interpretations differ, it is clear that simultaneous measurements of radar sea return and passive microwave temperature will provide estimates of the wind speed, and perhaps wind direction, over the oceans, especially in cloudless areas, for a wide range of wind speeds. The problem of integrating the data that would be obtained by a spacecraft, especially one with a combination radar-radiometer, into global analysis procedures for meteorological, wave, and oceanographic predictions is described.
    Keywords: COMPUTERS
    Type: CONTRIB-98 , NASA. Manned Spacecraft Center 3d Ann. Earth Resources Program Rev., Vol. 3; 27 p
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2006-10-26
    Description: Wave forecasting by use of satellite-borne radar to survey ocean on synoptic scale
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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