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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 16 (1978), S. 381-390 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 73 ; 72.20
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Indium-tin-oxide films (ITO films) sputtered in Ar-atmosphere with and without addition of oxygen reveal an irreversible increase in conductivity during annealing in vacuum. This annealing process increases drastically the density of free electrons, while the Hall mobility changes only slightly. Below the annealing temperature the temperature dependence of the conductivity is reversible. In films with low density of free electrons, which behave like non-degenerated semiconductors, two activation energies for the mobility could be found. The irreversible changes, observed during annealing in the vacuum, are explained by diffusion of oxygen from the interior of the film to the surface, followed by desorption of the oxygen from the surface into the vacuum. The excess oxygen in the non-stoichiometric films plays the role of electron traps. The irreversible effects during annealing in the vacuum are partly reversible in the long run. If the annealed films are exposed to oxygen or air their conductivity decreases because of diffusion of oxygen from the surface into the film.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 16 (1978), S. 239-246 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 72.40 ; 73
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Indium oxide films doped with tin (ITO-films) have been hf-sputtered from an 80 at-%In2O3/20 at-%SnO2 target onto glass substrates. The sputter atmosphere contained mainly argon (10−2Torr) with addition of oxygen (0≦p O 2≦2·10−2Torr). The sputtered films aren-conductors. The conductivity and density of charge carriers depend on the oxygen content of the sputter gas. They could be varied by two orders of magnitude. In air or in oxygen atmosphere the films oxidize at the surface and for a certain depth beneath the surface, thus decreasing the conductivity. The Hall mobility of the sputtered films is smaller (≈10 cm2V−1 s−1) than one observes at ITO films produced by CVD sparaying or other methods. The conductivity of as sputtered films approached maximum values of about 1000Ώ−1cm−1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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