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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Orlando [u.a.] : Academic Pr.
    Call number: PIK N 531-91-0142
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XIV, 472 S. : graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 0125545207 , 0-12-554521-5
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-0629
    Keywords: Key words: ecological theory; synthesis; social science; urban.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Dominance ; Facilitation ; Inhibition ; Oldfield ; Succession ; Tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the effects of total (TR) or partial (PR) removal of the above-ground biomass of the dominant species on early successional trends in two oldfields in central New Jersey, USA. Our objective was to assess the occurrence of facilitation, tolerance, or inhibition as mechanisms of species replacement in the fields studied. In a 2nd-yr oldfield dominated by Ambrosia artemisiifolia, floristic composition and distribution of species cover changed markedly between the 2nd and the 3rd yr, regardless of the removal treatment. In both TR and PR plots and in control plots dominance shifted from an annual (A. artemisiifolia) to a biennial (Erigeron annuus). This indicates that the presence of the annual dominant is not necessary to promote this successional replacement, and therefore facilitation can be ruled out. Most species present in the 3rd-yr community were late summer and fall invaders which were not initially present. In a 7-yr oldfield dominated by Solidago canadensis, a clonal perennial, very little change in the distribution of species cover could be detected between years. Overall physiognomy remained the same, but there was a gradual change in floristic composition. In this field, TR and PR treatments enhanced vegetational change by allowing the increase in cover of suppressed understory species. Both inhibition and tolerance mechanisms may be involved in the pattern of vegetational change in this field. Finally, we stress that the mechanisms of species replacement operating in early secondary succession are dependent on structural and life history characteristics of the species assemblage on a particular site.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Restoration ecology 2 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant ecology 49 (1982), S. 45-59 
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: New Jersey USA ; Oldfield ; Permanent quadrats ; Population strategy ; Succession
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Using 48 permanent, 0.5×2.0 m quadrats, changes in species composition and cover were followed in an oldfield abandoned after plowing in the spring of 1960. Twenty years of data collected since then show the succession to be individualistic, that is, composed of broadly overlapping population curves through time. In general, the population curves exhibit long, persistent tails, indicating that, through this time span, succession is a process in which species that are present for much of the time become dominant at different times. Invasion and extinction are not the major mechanisms of community change. Bi- or multi-modal peaks were discovered in some species, but there is no clear explanation of such patterns yet. Many species which are important later in the sequence invade early. Information on the biologies of representative species from early, middle, and late portions of the sequence are correlated with the population patterns. In particular, the mode of dispersal, life cycle, germination behavior, and assimilation requirements are related to species positions. However, there is need for coordinated, comparative study of species strategies as well as experimental study of species interactions in order to more fully understand the mechanisms of this succession. The patterns discovered in this oldfield are compatible with contemporary concepts of succession as an organism-based phenomenon, in which probabilistic gap creation and filling are critical.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Causal hierarchy ; Mechanism ; Model ; Succession
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Questions of successional pattern and causality have been central concerns in vegetation ecology. In this paper we address the limits of the overextended models of Connell and Slatyer by discussing problems encountered in field tests. To help prevent such problems, we define the essential concepts needed to understand succession: pathway, cause, mechanism, and model. We then suggest a more complete enumeration of successional causes, and place them in a three-level hierarchy. The highest level in the hierarchy defines the general and universal conditions under which succession occurs: (1) availability of open sites, (2) differential availability of species, and (3) differential performance of species at the site. To provide a more detailed under-standing of succession, each of these causes is decomposed into ecological processes. A further decomposition results in the third level of the hierarchy, which is required to elucidate the mechanisms of succession at particular sites and to make detailed predictions. The hierarchy allows the appropriate causes to be chosen to answer questions about succession at the desired level of generality or level of organization. Recognizing the appropriate level(s) in the hierarchy is critical for the successful explanation of succession, design of experiments, statement of predictions, construction of models and development of general theory.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Allegheny Plateau ; Canopy gap ; Disturbance ; Pennsylvania
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Single- (33–37 m2) and multi-tree (51–151 m2) gaps were created in an Allegheny Plateau northern hard-woods forest to investigate environmental and herb layer response to canopy opening. After gap creation, noon light on clear summer days was brightest north of opening center. At other times of the day, and when skies were overcast, there was no difference in the light quantity beneath opened and closed canopy. Nor was the distribution of soil moisture or of soil or air temperature greatly affected by gap creation. Species establishment tended to be higher near opening centers; otherwise, there was no pronounced effect of canopy opening on plant cover or species richness during the first four years after gap creation. Biotic responses were not significantly correlated with any environmental factor.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Colonizing species ; Life history strategy ; Permanent plot ; Succession
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The importance of Gleasonian species individuality, with its relation to life history strategies in succession, has been implied by studies lasting only a few years, or studies relying on chronosequences. Even in long-term studies, it has been addressed without statistical tests. Here, we examine the first six years of succession in permanent plots on ten contrasting oldfields to statistically determine the role of species individuality in early oldfield succession. Percent cover data were collected each summer in 48 permanent plots in ten oldfields as part of the Buell Succession Study at the Hutcheson Memorial Forest on the New Jersey Piedmont, USA. Congruent patterns of mean percent cover over time clearly reflect life history strategies of annuals and biennials. Kendall's coefficient of concordance, calculated for population patterns of annuals or biennials in each oldfield, confirms that population patterns within life form groups are similar and supports the contention that life history strategies are important in determining successional pattern once species become established in an oldfield. Profile analysis, a statistical test for parallelism among species patterns, performed on all population patterns in each oldfield, confirms that these patterns are individualistic. The individualistic pattern implies that succession may be driven by the different strategies of dispersal, growth, and resource use of the species involved.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant ecology 83 (1989), S. 7-15 
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Falsification ; Hypothesis ; Model ; Prediction ; Succession ; Scientific method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In order to help evaluate progress in vegetation science, we present an outline of the components of theory. Theory has both empirically and conceptually based components, and is tied together by a hierarchical framework. Theory is related to observable phenomena to further the most general goal of science, understanding. More specific tactics to advance understanding include explanation, generalization, and testing. Different components of theory permit the operation of specific tactics. Most components of theory are exemplified by one or more aspects of vegetation science. However, there are some conceptual and empirical components in need of further development. We conclude that vegetation science does in fact conform to the contemporary view of a developing theory, and that this theory can serve as a fruitful guide to research and application of concepts to the field.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0066-4162
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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