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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Physical Oceanography Department
    Publication Date: 2018-09-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 873190 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: Data from seven moorings deployed across the East Greenland shelfbreak and slope 280 km downstream of Denmark Strait are used to investigate the characteristics and dynamics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) cyclones. On average, a cyclone passes the mooring array every other day near the 900 m isobath, dominating the variability of the boundary current system. There is considerable variation in both the frequency and location of the cyclones on the slope, but no apparent seasonality. Using the year-long data set from September 2007 to October 2008, we construct a composite DSOW cyclone that reveals the average scales of the features. The composite cyclone consists of a lens of dense overflow water on the bottom, up to 300 m thick, with cyclonic flow above the lens. The azimuthal flow is intensified in the middle and upper part of the water column and has the shape of a Gaussian eddy with a peak depth-mean speed of 0.22 m/s at a radius of 7.8 km. The lens is advected by the mean flow of 0.27 m/s and self propagates at 0.45 m/s, consistent with the topographic Rossby wave speed and the Nof speed. The total translation velocity along the East Greenland slope is 0.72 m/s. The self-propagation speed exceeds the cyclonic swirl speed, indicating that the azimuthal flow cannot kinematically trap fluid in the water column above the lens. This implies that the dense water anomaly and the cyclonic swirl velocity are dynamically linked, in line with previous theory. Satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data are investigated to study the surface expression of the cyclones. Disturbances to the SST field are found to propagate less quickly than the in-situ DSOW cyclones, raising the possibility that the propagation of the SST signatures is not directly associated with the cyclones.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Open-ocean deep convection, one of the processes by which deep waters of the world's oceans are formed, is restricted to a small number of locations (for example, the Mediterranean and Labrador seas). Recently, the southwest Irminger Sea has been suggested as an additional location for ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-09-23
    Description: The Denmark Strait overflow water is the largest dense water plume from the Nordic seas to feed the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Its primary source is commonly thought to be the East Greenland Current. However, the recent discovery of the North Icelandic Jet—a deep-reaching current that flows along the continental slope of Iceland—has called this view into question. Here we present high-resolution measurements of hydrography and velocity north of Iceland, taken during two shipboard surveys in October 2008 and August 2009. We find that the North Icelandic Jet advects overflow water into the Denmark Strait and constitutes a pathway that is distinct from the East Greenland Current. We estimate that the jet supplies about half of the total overflow transport, and infer that it is the primary source of the densest overflow water. Simulations with an ocean general circulation model suggest that the import of warm, salty water from the North Icelandic Irminger Current and water-mass transformation in the interior Iceland Sea are critical to the formation of the jet. We surmise that the timescale for the renewal of the deepest water in the meridional overturning cell, and its sensitivity to changes in climate, could be different than presently envisaged.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Physical Oceanography Department
    Publication Date: 2018-09-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 449429 data points
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Physical Oceanography Department
    Publication Date: 2018-09-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 2352 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: For decades oceanographers have understood the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) to be primarily driven by changes in the production of deep-water formation in the subpolar and subarctic North Atlantic. Indeed, current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections of an AMOC slowdown in the twenty-first century based on climate models are attributed to the inhibition of deep convection in the North Atlantic. However, observational evidence for this linkage has been elusive: there has been no clear demonstration of AMOC variability in response to changes in deep-water formation. The motivation for understanding this linkage is compelling, since the overturning circulation has been shown to sequester heat and anthropogenic carbon in the deep ocean. Furthermore, AMOC variability is expected to impact this sequestration as well as have consequences for regional and global climates through its effect on the poleward transport of warm water. Motivated by the need for a mechanistic understanding of the AMOC, an international community has assembled an observing system, Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP), to provide a continuous record of the transbasin fluxes of heat, mass, and freshwater, and to link that record to convective activity and water mass transformation at high latitudes. OSNAP, in conjunction with the Rapid Climate Change–Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array (RAPID–MOCHA) at 26°N and other observational elements, will provide a comprehensive measure of the three-dimensional AMOC and an understanding of what drives its variability. The OSNAP observing system was fully deployed in the summer of 2014, and the first OSNAP data products are expected in the fall of 2017.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-03-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-08-18
    Description: The recently discovered East Greenland Spill Jet is a bottom-intensified current on the upper continental slope south of Denmark Strait, transporting intermediate density water equatorward. Until now the Spill Jet has only been observed with limited summertime measurements from ships. Here we present the first year-round mooring observations demonstrating that the current is a ubiquitous feature with a volume transport similar to the well-known plume of Denmark Strait overflow water farther downslope. Using reverse particle tracking in a high-resolution numerical model, we investigate the upstream sources feeding the Spill Jet. Three main pathways are identified: particles flowing directly into the Spill Jet from the Denmark Strait sill; particles progressing southward on the East Greenland shelf that subsequently spill over the shelfbreak into the current; and ambient water from the Irminger Sea that gets entrained into the flow. The two Spill Jet pathways emanating from Denmark Strait are newly resolved, and long-term hydrographic data from the strait verifies that dense water is present far onto the Greenland shelf. Additional measurements near the southern tip of Greenland suggest that the Spill Jet ultimately merges with the deep portion of the shelfbreak current, originally thought to be a lateral circulation associated with the sub-polar gyre. Our study thus reveals a previously unrecognized significant component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation that needs to be considered to understand fully the ocean's role in climate.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Macmillan Publishers, 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Macmillan Publishers for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature Geoscience 2 (2009): 67-72, doi:10.1038/ngeo382.
    Description: The process of open-ocean convection in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean forms a dense water mass that impacts the meridional overturning circulation and heat flux, and sequesters atmospheric carbon. In recent years the convection has been shallow or nonexistent, which could be construed as a consequence of a warmer climate. However, in the winter of 2007-08 deep convection returned to the subpolar gyre in both the Labrador and Irminger Seas. Here we document this return and elucidate the reasons why it happened. Profiling float data from the Argo programme are used to document the deep mixing, and a variety of in-situ, satellite, and reanalysis products are analyzed to describe the conditions leading to the overturning. The transition to a convective state took place abruptly, without going through a preconditioning phase, which is contrary to general expectations. Changes in the hemispheric air temperature, tracks of storms, flux of freshwater to the Labrador Sea, and distribution of pack ice all conspired to enhance the air-sea heat flux, resulting in the deep overturning. This study illuminates the complexity of the North Atlantic convective system.
    Description: Support for this work was provided by the Ocean Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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