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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Coppola, Alysha I; Wiedemeier, Daniel B; Galy, Valier; Haghipour, Negar; Hanke, Ulrich M; Nascimento, Gabriela S; Usman, Muhammed Ojoshogu; Blattmann, Thomas M; Reisser, Moritz; Freymond, Chantal V; Zhao, Meixun; Voss, Britta; Wacker, Lukas; Schefuß, Enno; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael W I; Eglinton, Timothy Ian (2018): Global-scale evidence for the refractory nature of riverine black carbon. Nature Geoscience, 11(8), 584-588, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0159-8
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Wildfires and incomplete combustion of fossil fuel produce large amounts of black carbon. Black carbon production and transport are essential components of the carbon cycle. Constraining estimates of black carbon exported from land to ocean is critical, given ongoing changes in land use and climate, which affect fire occurrence and black carbon dynamics. Here, we present an inventory of the concentration and radiocarbon content (∆14C) of particulate black carbon for 18 rivers around the globe. We find that particulate black carbon accounts for about 15.8 ± 0.9% of river particulate organic carbon, and that fluxes of particulate black carbon co-vary with river-suspended sediment, indicating that particulate black carbon export is primarily controlled by erosion. River particulate black carbon is not exclusively from modern sources but is also aged in intermediate terrestrial carbon pools in several high-latitude rivers, with ages of up to 17,000 14C years. The flux-weighted 14C average age of particulate black carbon exported to oceans is 3,700 ± 400 14C years. We estimate that the annual global flux of particulate black carbon to the ocean is 0.017 to 0.037 Pg, accounting for 4 to 32% of the annually produced black carbon. When buried in marine sediments, particulate black carbon is sequestered to form a long-term sink for CO2.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/octet-stream, 29.0 kBytes
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  • 2
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    PANGAEA
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Expansion (version 2.0) of the original Land2Sea database of exorheic rivers (Peucker-Ehrenbrink, 2009, doi:10.1029/2008GC002356) that contains information on 1519 rivers, with additional literature estimates of basin size, water discharge (runoff) under current conditions and prior to human intervention, suspended sediment discharge under current conditions and prior to human intervention, estimate of sediment bedload flux, dissolved strontium concentration and radiogenic isotope value as well as particulate (silt or clay) neodymium concentration, isotope composition and Nd model ages. A large addition to the original river database that contains a significant amount of data from the compilation of Meybeck and Ragu (1996) is from Milliman and Farnsworth (2011). The compilation is not yet geo-referenced. The 2156 rivers are sorted alphabetically within each large-scale drainage region (Graham et al., 1999, 2000). In addition, the compilation includes data on sizes of, and sediment discharge from 48 small islands in Oceania with very high sediment yields. Any errors in transcribing data or converting units from their primary sources into this compilation are entirely mine. Acknowledgements: BPE acknowledges financial support from NSR-EAR-0087697, -0125873, -1226818 and ICER-1639557, as well as from WHOI's Investment in Research and Development Fund.
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    Format: application/zip, 90.0 kBytes
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Galy, Valier; France-Lanord, Christian; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Huyghe, Pascale (2010): Sr-Nd-Os evidence for a stable erosion regime in the Himalaya during the past 12 Myr. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 290(3-4), 474-480, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2010.01.004
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: Modern erosion of the Himalaya, the world's largest mountain range, transfers huge dissolved and particulate loads to the ocean. It plays an important role in the long-term global carbon cycle, mostly through enhanced organic carbon burial in the Bengal Fan. To understand the role of past Himalayan erosion, the influence of changing climate and tectonic on erosion must be determined. Here we use a 12 Myr sedimentary record from the distal Bengal Fan (Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 218) to reconstruct the Mio-Pliocene history of Himalayan erosion. We use carbon stable isotopes (d13C) of bulk organic matter as paleo-environmental proxy and stratigraphic tool. Multi-isotopic - Sr, Nd and Os - data are used as proxies for the source of the sediments deposited in the Bengal Fan over time. d13C values of bulk organic matter shift dramatically towards less depleted values, revealing the widespread Late Miocene (ca. 7.4 Ma) expansion of C4 plants in the basin. Sr, Nd and Os isotopic compositions indicate a rather stable erosion pattern in the Himalaya range during the past 12 Myr. This supports the existence of a strong connection between the southern Tibetan plateau and the Bengal Fan. The tectonic evolution of the Himalaya range and Southern Tibet seems to have been unable to produce large re-organisation of the drainage system. Moreover, our data do not suggest a rapid change of the altitude of the southern Tibetan plateau during the past 12 Myr. Variations in Sr and Nd isotopic compositions around the late Miocene expansion of C4 plants are suggestive of a relative increase in the erosion of High Himalaya Crystalline rock (i.e. a simultaneous reduction of both Transhimalayan batholiths and Lesser Himalaya relative contributions). This could be related to an increase in aridity as suggested by the ecological and sedimentological changes at that time. A reversed trend in Sr and Nd isotopic compositions is observed at the Plio-Pleistocene transition that is likely related to higher precipitation and the development of glaciers in the Himalaya. These almost synchronous moderate changes in erosion pattern and climate changes during the late Miocene and at the Plio-Pleistocene transition support the notion of a dominant control of climate on Himalayan erosion during this time period. However, stable erosion regime during the Pleistocene is suggestive of a limited influence of the glacier development on Himalayan erosion.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 303 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 82 data points
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 144 data points
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 318 data points
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 60 data points
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Dalai, Tarun K; Ravizza, Gregory E; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard (2006): The Late Eocene 187Os/188Os excursion: Chemostratigraphy, cosmic dust flux and the Early Oligocene glaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 241(3-4), 477-492, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.035
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: High resolution records (ca. 100 kyr) of Os isotope composition (187Os/188Os) in bulk sediments from two tropical Pacific sites (ODP Sites 1218 and 1219) capture the complete Late Eocene 187Os/188Os excursion and confirm that the Late Eocene 187Os/ 188Os minimum, earlier reported by Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink (2003, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00137-7), is a global feature. Using the astronomically tuned age models available for these sites, it is suggested that the Late Eocene 187Os/188Os minimum can be placed at 34.5 +/- 0.1 Ma in the marine records. In addition, two other distinct features of the 187Os/188Os excursion that are correlatable among sections are proposed as chemostratigraphic markers which can serve as age control points with a precision of ca. +/-0.1 Myr. We propose a speculative hypothesis that higher cosmic dust flux in the Late Eocene may have contributed to global cooling and Early Oligocene glaciation (Oi-1) by supplying bio-essential trace elements to the oceans and thereby resulting in higher ocean productivity, enhanced burial of organic carbon and draw down of atmospheric CO2. To determine if the hypothesis that enhanced cosmic dust flux in the Late Eocene was a cause for the 187Os/188Os excursion can be tested by using the paired bulk sediment and leachate Os isotope composition; 187Os/188Os were also measured in sediment leachates. Results of analyses of leachates are inconsistent between the south Atlantic and the Pacific sites, and therefore do not yield a robust test of this hypothesis. Comparison of 187Os/188Os records with high resolution benthic foraminiferal delta18O records across the Eocene-Oligocene transition suggests that 187Os flux to the oceans decreased during cooling and ice growth leading to the Oi-1 glaciation, whereas subsequent decay of ice-sheets and deglacial weathering drove seawater 187Os/188Os to higher values. Although the precise timing and magnitude of these changes in weathering fluxes and their effects on the marine 187Os/188Os records are obscured by recovery from the Late Eocene 187Os/188Os excursion, evidence of the global influence of glaciation on supply of Os to the ocean is robust as it has now been documented in both Pacific and Atlantic records.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 5 datasets
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  • 9
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Robinson, Nicole; Ravizza, Gregory E; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Norris, Richard D (2009): A high-resolution marine 187Os/188Os record for the late Maastrichtian: Distinguishing the chemical fingerprints of Deccan volcanism and the KP impact event. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 281(3-4), 159-168, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2009.02.019
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Description: A composite late Maastrichtian (65.5 to 68.5 Ma) marine osmium (Os) isotope record, based on samples from the Southern Ocean (ODP Site 690), the Tropical Pacific Ocean (DSDP Site 577), the South Atlantic (DSDP Site 525) and the paleo-Tethys Ocean demonstrates that subaerially exposed pelagic carbonates can record seawater Os isotope variations with a fidelity comparable to sediments recovered from the seafloor. New results provide robust evidence of a 20% decline in seawater 187Os/188Os over a period of about 200 kyr early in magnetochron C29r well below the Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary (KPB), confirming previously reported low-resolution data from the South Atlantic Ocean. New results also confirm a second more rapid decline in 187Os/188Os associated with the KPB that is accompanied by a significant increase in Os concentrations. Complementary platinum (Pt) and iridium (Ir) concentration data indicate that the length scale of diagenetic remobilization of platinum group elements from the KPB is less than 1 m and does not obscure the pre-KPB decline in 187Os/188Os. Increases in bulk sediment Ir concentrations and decreases in bulk carbonate content that coincide with the Os isotope shift suggest that carbonate burial flux may have been lower during the initial decline in 187Os/188Os. We speculate that diminished carbonate burial rate may have been the result of ocean acidification caused by Deccan volcanism.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 8 datasets
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 80 data points
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