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  • 1
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    Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Department für Agrarökonomie und Rurale Entwicklung (DARE)
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: Using a unique dataset of a commercial microfinance institution in Madagascar, this paper investigates how the provision of microfinance loans with (in)flexible repayment schedules affects loan delinquencies of agricultural borrowers. Flexible repayment schedules allow a redistribution of principal payments during periods with low agricultural returns to periods when agricultural returns are high. We develop a theoretical framework and apply and estimate an econometric model for the loan repayment behavior of agricultural microborrowers with seasonal and non-seasonal production types. Our results reveal that delinquencies of non-seasonal farmers and seasonal farmers with inflexible repayment schedules are not significantly different from those of non-farmers. Furthermore, we find that seasonal farmers with flexible repayment schedules show significantly higher delinquencies than non-farmers in low delinquency categories, but we also find that this effect disappears in the highest delinquency category.
    Keywords: G21 ; G32 ; Q14 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural Credit ; Borrowing ; Financial Risk ; Loan Repayment ; Microfinance ; Seasonality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of direct payments and rural development measures of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on employment in agriculture. We work with a dynamic labour demand equation augmented by the full set of policy instruments of the CAP, which is estimated on a panel dataset of 69 East German regions. We present results for four estimators which differ in how they eliminate the fixed effects and how they address the endogeneity of the lagged dependent variable. The results suggest that there were few desirable effects on job maintenance in agriculture. While there is some indication that investment subsidies have halted labour shedding on farms, a rise in the general wage level reduced labour use in agriculture. Changes in direct payments had no employment effects. Generally, labour adjustment exhibits a strong path dependency.
    Keywords: Q18 ; J43 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural employment ; Dynamic panel data models ; Common Agricultural Policy ; East Germany
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Oxford: Oxford University Press | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: The article contributes to the understanding of neo-endogenous rural development from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. Rural development is modelled as the increasing realisation over time of gains from interaction by rural stakeholders. The model exhibits two dynamically stable equilibria, which depict declining and prospering regions. An external government authority stimulates neo-endogenous rural development by helping decentralised actors to coordinate on the superior of the two equilibria. This intervention may be possible and desirable without giving up the autonomy of local decision makers. Because initial conditions matter, outcomes cannot be planned or engineered from the outside.
    Keywords: C73 ; R23 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; rural governance ; neo-endogenous rural development ; evolutionary game theory ; collective action
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Hoboken: Wiley | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: This article provides a deeper theoretical understanding of the linkages between land fragmentation and off-farm labor supply in China, and investigates this relationship empirically in a more direct way than does the existing literature. Drawing upon a rural household panel data set collected in Zhejiang, Hubei, and Yunnan Provinces from 1995 to 2002, we estimate the effects in two steps. First, we estimate the effect of land fragmentation on labor productivity. Second, we estimate the effect of land fragmentation on off-farm labor supply. The production function results show that land fragmentation indeed leads to lower agricultural labor productivity, implying that land consolidation will make on-farm work more attractive and thus decrease off-farm labor supply. However, the effect of land consolidation on off-farm labor supply is not significant. One likely explanation for this result may be the potentially imperfect labor markets.
    Keywords: J22 ; Q15 ; Q24 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Land fragmentation ; Off-farm ; Labor supply ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-18
    Description: What would a ‘good’ industrial policy in the realm of cotton production look like? This article seeks to address this question through a focus on reforms to the cotton sector in Kazakhstan. In contrast with neighbouring Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, administrators in Kazakhstan had widely freed the cotton sector from government control as early as 1998. Agricultural collectives had been replaced by small private farms, and commercial cotton processors and traders entered the sector. However, in 2007, regulation tightened again and forced ginneries to use a complex warehouse receipt system without making sure that it was accepted by stakeholders and without appropriate institutions for implementing it in place. Moreover, it imposed financing restrictions on ginneries, which were major loan and input providers to farmers. In the following years, private producers and investors turned away from cotton, and cotton area and output fell substantially. We position our analysis in the broader debate about the right approach to industrial policy and argue that the cotton sector performance after 2007 shows how ill-designed regulation and government interference can turn a promising economic sector towards decline.
    Keywords: O13 ; O25 ; P23 ; Q15 ; ddc:330 ; cotton ; Kazakhstan ; public regulation ; industrial policy ; commodity finance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Description: This article explores the current practice of motivating agricultural workers in post-socialist settings. In addition, it attempts to evaluate the different wage systems observed in reality and better understand under which conditions they are reformed. It does so by contrasting the experience of two extreme cases representing fast and slow reform advance, East Germany and North Kazakhstan. The primary data for the analysis comes from cross-sectional farm surveys conducted by various researchers in both countries. East German farmers quickly replaced the inherited Soviet-style piece rate payment system by simple time rate schemes, augmented by wage premia for certain performance parameters, especially in livestock. To the contrary, the piece rate approach persists in many farms in North Kazakhstan. Moreover, the latter rarely use non-wage incentives to motivate their workers. In Kazakhstan, farms using either mixed systems or pure piece rates were more productive than the reference group using pure time rates. Labour cost per worker were lowest for pure time rate systems in both countries, followed by mixed bonus systems, whereas pure piece rate systems implied the highest cost in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstani managers tend to move away from the Soviet piece rate system if external investors become engaged in farming operations.
    Keywords: M52 ; P32 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; human resource management ; labour supervision ; performance pay ; post-Soviet agriculture ; agroholdings
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Amsterdam: Elsevier | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-11-13
    Description: Against the global debate on socially responsible agro-investment, we explore the conditions, patterns, and impacts of recent agricultural recovery in Kazakhstan’s northern grain provinces. Vertically and horizontally integrated agroholdings brought outside investment and management to this region. With stable employment in agriculture, real consumption spending of rural households has doubled within an 8-year period. Due to the socialist tradition of industrialized farming operations, rural inhabitants regard themselves primarily as workers and not as land owners. We conclude that investment in large-scale farming can provide benefits to rural people even with less than ideal-type political representation.
    Keywords: O13 ; P32 ; Q12 ; Q15 ; ddc:330 ; agricultural investment ; land grabbing ; farm organization ; rural poverty ; Kazakhstan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: This study contributes to the understanding of long- and short-term determinants of cooperation among water users. We experimentally investigate the potential of water users’ self-governance in enhancing their contributions to a common pool as opposed to external regulation. Our focus is on the irrigated areas of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Due to their Soviet past, these countries have a reputation for low bottom-up cooperation potential. Based on the different pre-Soviet irrigation traditions of the two study sites, we assess the effectiveness of short-term incentives compared to long term cultural factors of cooperation. History might matter, but we find it does not predetermine the success of current water decentralization in ancient as compared to relatively recently established irrigation sites. Our study reveals that external regulation, in fact, decreases farmers’ cooperation, whereas face-to-face communication increases it. This finding calls into question the top-down approach prevalent in current water policies of the region. Moreover, it suggests the viability of endogenous cooperation and hence encourages the implementation of truly self-governed water management policies in Central Asia. However, the substantial heterogeneity in individual contributions apparent at the village level also signals a warning that one-size-fits-all approaches to local cooperation are unlikely to succeed.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Water-management ; Self-governance ; Field experiment ; Cultural determinants ; Central Asia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: Since mid 2007 there has been a dramatic rise in prices for basic foods such as internationally traded varieties of rice, corn and wheat. At the moment, it is rather impossible to estimate how far speculation in the commodity markets has contributed to this development. Irrespective of this, a long-term solution to present and future supply shortfalls, including investment in more efficient agro-technologies and infrastructures is required. This is a matter for the international community which should continue to promote the abolition of international trade barriers in the agricultural sector in addition to local measures to provide structural aid. Hoped-for structural change may however be impeded if agricultural producers are exposed both to the market power of trader demand and the supplier power of upstream suppliers. It therefore appears that controls on abuse of market power at an international level are urgently required in order to increase the efficiency of agricultural markets and ultimately to secure the food supply.
    Keywords: D84 ; L4 ; Q11 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; Noisetraders ; Trade liberalization ; Vertical relations
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: Seit Mitte 2007 sind die Preise für Grundnahrungsmittel wie Reis, Mais und Weizen bei international gehandelten Sorten dramatisch gestiegen. In welchem Umfang zu dieser Entwicklung Spekulationen an den Rohstoffmärkten beigetragen haben, lässt sich nicht beziffern. Unabhängig davon setzt eine langfristige Überwindung der gegenwärtigen und künftigen Versorgungsengpässe, unter anderem Investitionen in effizientere Agrartechnologien und Infrastrukturen voraus. Hier ist die internationale Gemeinschaft gefragt. Neben lokalen Strukturhilfemaßnahmen sollte sie den Abbau von internationalen Handelsbarrieren im Agrarbereich weiter vorantreiben. Der erhoffte Strukturwandel kann jedoch gehemmt werden, wenn Agrarproduzenten sowohl der Marktmacht der nachfragenden Händler als auch der Angebotsmacht von Vorleistungslieferanten ausgesetzt sind. Daher erscheint die Kontrolle von Marktmachtmissbräuchen auch auf internationaler Ebene zwingend, um die Funktionsfähigkeit von Agrarmärkten und schließlich die Sicherheit der Versorgung mit Nahrungsmitteln zu erhöhen.
    Keywords: D84 ; L4 ; Q11 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural prices ; Noise traders ; Trade liberalization ; Vertical relations ; Lebensmittelpreis ; Preisniveau ; Noise Trading ; Handelsliberalisierung ; Ernährungssicherung ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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