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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 35134 data points
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 380 (1996), S. 699-702 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Four types of data were used to reveal the Antarctic Circum-polar Wave (ACW). They are: twice daily atmospheric sea-level pressures (SLP) and meridional wind stresses (MWS) on a 1.875° grid spanning 1985-94 as produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)4; monthly ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    Pergamon Press
    In:  Deep Sea Research Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers, 37 (12). pp. 1875-1886.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: Geostrophic volume transports in the upper 500 m are computed from historical hydrographic data for the area off the Brazilian coast west of 30°W and between 7° and 20°S. On the basis of water mass distributions, potential density surfaces of σθ = 27.05 kg m−3 (360–670 m) and σθ = 27.6 kg m−3 (∼1200 m) are used for referencing the meridional and zonal components of the geostrophic shears, respectively. Near 15°S a northwestward flow of 8 Sv crosses 30°W. This current reaches the shelf near 10°S in February and March, the only two months for which observations are available near that latitude along the coast; of the 8 Sv, about 4 Sv continue towards the northwest into the North Brazil Current while another branch also carrying 4 Sv turns southward as the beginning of the Brazil Current. Between 10° and 20°S the Brazil Current does not appear to strengthen appreciably, but because of the likely existence of flow on the shelf these transport values represent lower limits to the actual ones. At 30°W, another westward flow of approximately 8–10 Sv enters the area near 10°S and serves to strengthen the North Brazil Current. The total transfer of 12 Sv or more from the South Equatorial Current into the North Brazil Current and later to other currents and the northern hemisphere may be an important factor contributing to the well-known weakness of the Brazil Current in its more northerly latitudes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 19 (10). pp. 1440-1448.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: Historical data from the region between the Greenwich meridian and the African continental shelf are used to compute the offshore geostrophic transport of the Benguela Current. At 32°S, the Benguela Current is located near the African coast, transporting about 21 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s−1) of surface water toward the north relative to a potential density surface lying between the upper branch of Circumpolar Deep Water and the North Atlantic Deep Watar. Two warm core eddies of probable Agulhas Current origin an observed west of the Benguela Current at 32°S. Near 30°S, the Benguela Current turns toward the northwest and begins to separate from the eastern boundary. It carries about 18 Sv of surface water across 28°S. The current then turns mainly toward the west to flow over a relatively deep segment of the Walvis Ridge south of the Valdivia Bank. A surface current with northward surface of about 10 cm s−1 flows along the western side of the Valdivia Bank, while another northward surface current flows at about 20 cm s−1 some 300 km west of the bank. About 3 Sv of surface now do not leave the Cape Basin south of the Vaidivia Bank, but instead drift northward as a wide. sluggish flow out of the northern end of the Cape Basin. Because of the more southerly seaward extensions of most of the Benguela Current, there are no deep-reaching interactions observed between this current and the cyclonic gyre in the Angola Basin east of the Greenwich meridian. Beneath the surface layer, about 4–5 Sv of Antarctic Intermediate Water are carried northward across 32° and 28°S by the Benguela Current, essentially all of which turns westward to cross the Greenwich meridian south of 24°S.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 20 (6). pp. 846-859.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: In this paper we use the historical hydrographic data base for the South Atlantic Ocean to investigate (i) the hydrographic boundary between the subtropical gyre and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the Sub-tropical Front (STF), and (ii) the southern current band of the gyre, which is called the South Atlantic Current (SAC). The STF begins in the west in the Brazil-Falkland (Malvinas) confluence zone, but at locations at and west of 45°W this front is often coincident with the Brazil Current front. East of 45°W the STF appears to be a distinct feature to at least the region south of Africa, whereupon it continues into the Indian Ocean. The associated current band of increased zonal speed is the SAC, which, except for one instance, is found at or north of the surface STF until Indian Ocean water from the Agulhas retroflection is reached. A reversal of baroclinicity in the STF is observed south of a highly saline Agulhas ring, causing the SAC to separate from the STF and turn north into the Benguela Current. Zonal flow south of the STF is generally weak and serves to separate the South Atlantic and circumpolar currents. In the Argentine Basin, the SAC has a typical volume transport of 30 Sv (1 Sv = 106m3s−1) in the upper 1000 m relative to a deep potential density surface (σ4 = 45.87 kg m−3), and can be as high as 37 Sv. It is thus comparable to, or stronger than, the Brazil Current. In the Cape Basin, the transport of the SAC is reduced to about 15 SY before it turns north to feed the Benguela Current. In late 1983 this flow was joined by about 8 Sv of water from the Agulhas Current.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Elsevier
    In:  Progress in Oceanography, 26 (1). pp. 1-73.
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: In this paper we present a literature survey of the South Atlantic's climate and its oceanic upper-layer circulation and meridional heat transport. The opening section deals with climate and is focused upon those elements having greatest oceanic relevance, i.e., distributions of atmospheric sea level pressure, the wind fields they produce, and the net surface energy fluxes. The various geostrophic currents comprising the upper-level general circulation are then reviewed in a manner organized around the subtropical gyre, beginning off southern Africa with the Agulhas Current Retroflection and then progressing to the Benguela Current, the equatorial current system and circulation in the Angola Basin, the large-scale variability and interannual warmings at low latitudes, the Brazil Current, the South Atlantic Current, and finally to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current system in which the Falkland (Malvinas) Current is included. A summary of estimates of the meridional heat transport at various latitudes in the South Atlantic ends of the survey
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25 (1). pp. 77-91.
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: The Southern Hemisphere Subtropical Front (STF) is a narrow zone of transition between upper-level subtropical waters to the north and subantarctic waters to the south. It is found near 40 degrees S across the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans and is associated with an eastward geostrophic current band, The current band in each basin is found at or just north of the surface front except near the eastern boundaries where most of the subtropical waters turn north into the eastern limbs of the subtropical gyres. The bands associated with the STF are thus distinct features separated from the strong zonal flows of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current farther south. The authors have referred to the current bands in the two respective oceans as the South Atlantic Current and the South Indian Ocean Current. In this paper the authors use the historical database from the South Pacific Ocean to investigate the geostrophic flow associated with the STF there. The STF extends across the southern Tasman Sea from south of Tasmania to southern New Zealand, and a weak eastward flow appears to be associated with it. The transport amounts to only about 3 Sv (1Sv = 10(6) m(3) s(-1)), little of which passes south of New Zealand. Mixing within the eddy-rich Tasman Sea may account for this weakness, while also setting up another more significant front in the northern Tasman Sea, the Tasman Front. It branches off from the East Australian Current toward the north of New Zealand, along which moves a flow of about 14 Sv. After passing north of New Zealand, a portion of this current flows east to contribute to a current band near 30 degrees S, while another portion turns south as the East Auckland Current and meets with subantarctic waters near Chatham Rise (44 degrees S), thus reestablishing the STF. An enhanced eastward current band is associated with the front there, one that extends across the remainder of the South Pacific and is referred to as the South Pacific Current. In comparison with its counterparts in the other basins, which typically begin by carrying 30 Sv (Atlantic) to 60 Sv (Indian) in the upper 1000 m in their western portions before weakening to 10-15 Sv in the east, the South Pacific Current is weak. Near Chatham Rise, it starts with a transport of approximately 5 Sv, and it remains near this strength as it shifts gradually north across the basin toward South America. The current appears to split into two smaller bands in the region of 115 degrees-85 degrees W, while near 28 degrees 5, 83 degrees W it begins to turn more strongly north and becomes shallower and weaker. Potential vorticity distributions indicate that this current acts as an impediment toward the northward spreading of Antarctic Intermediate Water, But why the South Pacific Current east of New Zealand should be so much weaker than its counterparts in the other basins is not particularly clear. It may be due to the presence of New Zealand and other topographic barriers to deep now east of Australia, to the axis of the subtropical gyre in the South Pacific shifting more rapidly southward with depth than those elsewhere, thus causing greater reductions in the underlying zonal velocities, and to strong poleward eddy heat and salt fluxes in the other two basins leading to smaller cross-STF gradients in the Pacific.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: Measuring temperature and salinity profiles in the world's oceans is crucial to understanding ocean dynamics and its influence on the heat budget, the water cycle, the marine environment and on our climate. Since 1983 the German research vessel and icebreaker Polarstern has been the platform of numerous CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth instrument) deployments in the Arctic and the Antarctic. We report on a unique data collection spanning 33 years of polar CTD data. In total 131 data sets (1 data set per cruise leg) containing data from 10 063 CTD casts are now freely available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.860066. During this long period five CTD types with different characteristics and accuracies have been used. Therefore the instruments and processing procedures (sensor calibration, data validation, etc.) are described in detail. This compilation is special not only with regard to the quantity but also the quality of the data – the latter indicated for each data set using defined quality codes. The complete data collection includes a number of repeated sections for which the quality code can be used to investigate and evaluate long-term changes. Beginning with 2010, the salinity measurements presented here are of the highest quality possible in this field owing to the introduction of the OPTIMARE Precision Salinometer.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven | Supplement to: Driemel, Amelie; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Rohardt, Gerd; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Boetius, Antje; Budéus, Gereon; Cisewski, Boris; Engbrodt, Ralph; Gauger, Steffen; Geibert, Walter; Geprägs, Patrizia; Gerdes, Dieter; Gersonde, Rainer; Gordon, Arnold L; Grobe, Hannes; Hellmer, Hartmut H; Isla, Enrique; Jacobs, Stanley S; Janout, Markus; Jokat, Wilfried; Klages, Michael; Kuhn, Gerhard; Meincke, Jens; Ober, Sven; Østerhus, Svein; Peterson, Ray G; Rabe, Benjamin; Rudels, Bert; Schauer, Ursula; Schumacher, Stefanie; Schröder, Michael; Sieger, Rainer; Sildam, Jüri; Soltwedel, Thomas; Stangeew, Elena; Stein, Manfred; Strass, Volker H; Thiede, Jörn; Tippenhauer, Sandra; Veth, Cornelis; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Weirig, Marie-France; Wisotzki, Andreas; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A; Kanzow, Torsten (2017): From pole to pole: 33 years of physical oceanography onboard R/V Polarstern. Earth System Science Data, 9(1), 211-220, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-9-211-2017
    Publication Date: 2019-05-21
    Description: Measuring temperature and salinity profiles in the world's oceans is crucial to understanding ocean dynamics and its influence on the heat budget, the water cycle, the marine environment and on our climate. Since 1983 the German research vessel and icebreaker Polarstern has been the platform of numerous CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth instrument) deployments in the Arctic and the Antarctic. We report on a unique data collection spanning 33 years of polar CTD data. In total 131 data sets (1 data set per cruise leg) containing data from 10 063 CTD casts are now freely available. During this long period five CTD types with different characteristics and accuracies have been used. Therefore the instruments and processing procedures (sensor calibration, data validation, etc.) are described in detail. This compilation is special not only with regard to the quantity but also the quality of the data - the latter indicated for each data set using defined quality codes. The complete data collection includes a number of repeated sections for which the quality code can be used to investigate and evaluate long-term changes. Beginning with 2010, the salinity measurements presented here are of the highest quality possible in this field owing to the introduction of the OPTIMARE Precision Salinometer.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 1695 data points
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