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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The effects of surface temperature and imperfections on the drag of the supersonic transport are discussed. The relationships among surface temperature, emissivity, and skin friction are reviewed and the importance of manufacturing and maintenance imperfections is indicated.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NASA Conference on Aircraft Operating Problems: A Compilation of the Papers Presented; 227-233
    Format: text
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  • 2
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    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.
    Type: NACA-TR-551
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: High-aspect-ratio aircraft include most transport aircraft such as commercial and military transports, business aircraft, and cargo aircraft. Generally, these types of aircraft are designed to cruise over a narrow range of lift coefficients and Mach numbers in the performance of their mission. Emphasis is therefore placed on the cruise performance of transport aircraft and every effort is made to obtain accurate wind-tunnel data to use as a basis for prediction of full-scale cruise performance. However, off-cruise performance is also important and methods were developed for extrapolating wind-tunnel data on buffet and flutter at transonic speed. Transport-type aircraft were tested extensively in various wind tunnels around the world and many different test techniques were developed to simulate higher Reynolds numbers. Methods developed for one tunnel may not be applicable to another tunnel because of differences in size, Reynolds number capability, running time, and test objectives. Many of the methods of boundary-layer control developed in two-dimensional airfoil testing can be applied in tests of transport configurations, but sometimes the three-dimensional flow fields that develop on tranpsort aircraft can make application of the two-dimensional methods difficult or impossible. The discussion is intended to be a representative, but not exhaustive, survey of the various methods of high Reynolds number simulation in the testing of high-aspect-ratio aircraft.
    Keywords: RESEARCH AND SUPPORT FACILITIES (AIR)
    Type: AGARD, Boundary Layer Simulation and Control in Wind Tunnels; p 21-29
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-17
    Description: Tests were made on a 10-foot-diameter hemispherical nose at Reynolds numbers up to 10 x 10(exp 6) and at a maximum Mach number of about 0.1 to determine the effects of a highly favorable pressure gradient on boundary-layer transition caused by roughness. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional roughness particles were used, and the transition of the boundary layer was determined by hot-wire anemometers. The roughness Reynolds number for transition R(sub k,t) caused by three-dimensional particles such as Carborundum grains, spherical particles, and rimmed craters was found. The results show that for particles immersed in the boundary layer, R(sub k,t) is independent of the particle size or position on the hemispherical nose and depends mainly on the height-to-width ratio of the particle. The values of R(sub k,t) found on the hemispherical nose compare closely with those previously found on a flat plate and on airfoils with roughness. For two-dimensional roughness, the ratio of roughness height to boundary-layer displacement thickness necessary to cause transition was found to increase appreciably as the roughness was moved forward on the nose. Also included in the investigation were studies of the spread of turbulence behind a single particle of roughness and the effect of holes such as pressure orifices.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-MEMO-2-8-59L , L-172
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-17
    Description: A method is disclosed which permits evaluation of soil moisture utilizing remote sensing. Spectral measurements at a plurality of different wavelengths are taken with respect to sample soils and the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) measurements produced are submitted to regression analysis for development therefrom of predictable equations calculated for orderly relationships. Soil of unknown reflective and unknown soil moisture tension is thereafter analyzed for bidirectional reflectance and the resulting data utilized to determine the soil moisture tension of the soil as well as providing a prediction as to the bidirectional reflectance of the soil at other moisture tensions.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-16
    Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the effects of a blowing boundary-layer-control lift-augmentation system on the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale model of a fighter-type airplane. The wing was unswept at the 70-percent- chord station, had an aspect ratio of 2.86, a taper ratio of 0.40, and 4-percent-thick biconvex airfoil sections parallel to the plane of symmetry. The tests were conducted over a range of angles of attack from approximately -4 deg to 23 deg for a Reynolds number of approximately 5.2 x 10(exp 6) which corresponds to a Mach number of 0.08. Blowing rates were normally restricted to values just sufficient to control air-flow separation. The results of this investigation showed that wing leading-edge blowing in combination with large values of wing leading-edge-flap deflection was a very effective leading-edge flow-control device for wings having highly loaded trailing-edge flaps. With leading-edge blowing there was no hysteresis of the lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics upon recovery from stall. End plates were found to improve the lift and drag characteristics of the test configuration in the moderate angle-of-attack range, and blockage to one-quarter of the blowing-slot area was not detrimental to the aerodynamic characteristics. Blowing boundary-layer control resulted in a considerably reduced landing speed and reduced landing and take-off distances. The ailerons were very effective lateral-control devices when used with blowing flaps.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: NASA-TN-D-407 , L-927
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Two programs have been developed to calculate the pitch and roll angles of a wind-tunnel sting drive system that will position a model at the desired angle of attack and and angle of sideslip in the wind tunnel. These programs account for the effects of sting offset angles, sting bending angles and wind-tunnel stream flow angles. In addition, the second program incorporates inputs from on-board accelerometers that measure model pitch and roll with respect to gravity. The programs are presented in the report and a description of the numerical operation of the programs with a definition of the variables used in the programs is given.
    Keywords: RESEARCH AND SUPPORT FACILITIES (AIR)
    Type: NASA-TM-100659 , NAS 1.15:100659
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Two programs were developed to calculate the pitch and roll position of the conventional sting drive and the pitch of a high angle articulated sting to position a wind tunnel model at the desired angle of attack and sideslip and position the model as near as possible to the centerline of the tunnel. These programs account for the effects of sting offset angles, sting bending angles, and wind-tunnel stream flow angles. In addition, the second program incorporates inputs form on-board accelerometers that measure model pitch and roll with respect to gravity. The programs are presented and a description of the numerical operation of the programs with a definition of the variables used in the programs is given.
    Keywords: RESEARCH AND SUPPORT FACILITIES (AIR)
    Type: NASA-TM-104161 , NAS 1.15:104161
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.
    Type: NACA-TR-606
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: An investigation of the damping characteristics of dashpots was carried out combining theory and experiment. Laminar flow was assumed and three equations for the steady velocity of a piston moving in a cylinder filled with liquid were derived. In the first equation, the piston was assumed coaxial in the cylinder and, in the second equation, the piston was assumed eccentric in the cylinder with an element of the piston in contact with the cylinder wall. The third equation is for a piston of circular cross section in an elliptical cylinder. Experiments showed that the piston is normally eccentric in the cylinder. The pistons tested were 1.25 and 2 inches in diameter 0.062 to 1.00 inch long, and the clearances varied from 1.36 to 5.16 x 10 to the 3rd power inch. The difference in pressure on the two sides of the piston varied from about 2 to 55 pounds per square inch. The piston velocities for each assembly were measured with damping liquids of three different viscosities. At high piston velocities, when turbulent flow exists, the observed velocities were much lower than the velocities calculated on the basis of laminar flow. Results for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are presented in graphical form.
    Type: NACA-TN-830
    Format: application/pdf
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