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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: The objective of the present paper is to study the impact of R&D investment on inter-regional labour migration and inter-sectoral labour reallocation in the EU, specifically at regional level. In order to capture important general equilibrium effects, we employ a structural NEG model called RHOMOLO. The RHOMOLO model is a dynamic spatial general equilibrium (DSGE) modelling framework capturing 270 NUTS2 regions in EU-27, and decomposing the economy into 6 sectors. The current base year of RHOMOLO, and to which structural parameters' estimates are used to calibrate the model, is 2007. As a first step of our analysis we econometrically estimate both (i) within country and (ii) across countries migration flows as a function of relative population, relative real wages per employee, relative unemployment rate and regional connectivity (as proxied by bilateral trade between origin and destination regions normalised by the total of their GDP). Our econometric findings suggest that within-country migration is subject to much the same economic forces as between-country migration, with estimates of the coefficients of relative wages and relative unemployment within in the same range. Secondly, we econometrically estimate the R&D and human capital elasticities, which are key parameters in the semi-endogenous growth module of RHOMOLO to assess the impact of R&D investment on TFP growth. In our next step we produce regional scenarios for R&D investments according to the objective of the Europe 2020 strategy and use them to simulate a shock in R&D investments at the regional levels needed to meet the Europe 2020 strategy. Finally, we combine the previous work together in order to simulate the impact on employment levels of regional R&D investments through the geographically heterogeneous effect that they have on migration flows and on labour supply in each EU region. The geographical distribution of R&D expenditures is shown to affect migration flows as well as employment levels at the regional level by increasing skills in those regions affected by R&D expenditures. Spillover effects on neighbouring regions are also observed.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: This paper derives a gravity equation for commuter flows from a simple spatial labor market model based on the classic model developed by Anderson and Van Wincoop in the context of international trade. The approach shows the importance of taking into account the effect of the economic structure of neighboring regions when explaining the size of the commuter flow between two locations, the omission of which would be a significant source of omitted variable bias. As an application, we use this model to identify the effect of regional borders and language borders on commuting using Belgian data on intermunicipality-level commuting between all pairs of municipalities. To handle observations with zero commuters, we estimate the model by means of a negative binomial regression. We went at length to control for relevant variables such as the driving time between two municipalities, but also the travel time by public transport. The theoretical model is used to calculate the relevant controls for economic size of the municipalities and their surroundings. We find that regional borders exert a sizable residual deterrent effect on commuting. This border-effect differs significantly between regions and depends on the direction in which the border is crossed, with commuting flows going from French-speaking areas to Dutch-speaking areas experiencing a stronger deterrent effect from the border; which probably reflects the fact that knowledge of French is relatively more wide-spread in the Dutch-speaking areas compared to the other way around. We consider two extensions of the model. In a first one, we estimate the elasticity of substation for labour from different locations. With an estimated value of 1.3, it seems workers from different localities are hardly substitutable. In the second extension, we use the regional wage-equilibrium condition from our theoretical framework to estimate how the counter-factual removal of a regional border would change regional wages. As it turns out, the estimated effect is quite large, with an upsurge in wages of about 50 percent in the entire south of the country, and with an effect which dies only slowly with distance. As this prediction seems unrealistic, we re-estimated the effects while imposing a higher elasticity of substitution of 2.3. Using this value still gives a rise of about 50 percent, but only for a selection of municipalities in the South of Belgium, with very high unemployment rates, and located closely to high labour demand in the North (in Flanders and Brussels). The effect on municipalities about 20-30 kms from the language border becomes negligible.
    Keywords: J61 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: The present paper describes the modelling of regional labour markets in the newly developed dynamic spatial general equilibrium model RHOMOLO, where the labour market equilibrium is determined by firms' labour demand, a wage-curve determining unemployment, and inter-regional labour migration. The RHOMOLO model is parameterised by estimating the key structural parameters econometrically. In order to illustrate the potential of the proposed dynamic spatial general equilibrium approach for analysing regionally integrated labour markets, we carry out simulations showing the effects of a reduction in transportation cost, and assess the impact on regional labour markets. Our results confirm that wages and unemployment are by far the most important channels of adjustment to macro-economic and policy shocks in the EU. In contrast, labour migration plays a secondary role in labour market adjustments in the EU. Our results also suggest that the relationship between market access, labour demand and labour supply is non-linear and spatially inter-dependent, which underlines the importance of the proposed dynamic spatial general equilibrium approach.
    Keywords: C68 ; D58 ; F22 ; J20 ; J61 ; J64 ; O15 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: Over the last two decades the share of national income which accrues to labour has followed a marked downward trend across a host of industrialised countries. This paper attempts to assess the importance of several potential causes of this phenomenon. We investigate compositional effects, the effect of declining trade costs, changes in the market structure (concentration) and the effect of low-wage competition between countries. Overall, the findings suggest that lower trade costs and factors related to economic integration such as industry concentration, the market power of firms and increased international low-wage competition indeed affect the labour share. However, their effect has been quite limited when compared to changes in the sectoral composition, the effects of technological change, cyclical factors and changes in the prices of intfirmediary goods.
    Keywords: J30 ; E25 ; ddc:330 ; factor shares ; globalisation ; Wirtschaftsintegration ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Lohnquote ; Transportkosten ; Marktstruktur ; Dekompositionsverfahren ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Transition Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: This paper looks at how increasing economic integration affects wage bargaining between unions and firms if firms are internationally mobile. Using a simple NEG model we find that if firms are perfectly mobile, countries are sufficiently symmetric and wages are bargained over at the firm level they are set on the competitive level. For a more centralised bargaining scheme wage demands are made even if firms can perfectly threat to relocate. If countries are asymmetric full agglomeration becomes possible and rent-sharing between unions and firms then occurs as unions are able to appropriate part of the agglomeration rents in firm of higher wages. As agglomeration rents are a hump-shaped function of trade freeness in the larger country this implies the same non-monotonic relationship between wages and the level of trade freeness. We then investigate the case where wage bargaining takes place sequentially in each country. The comparative statics of the international Nash-equilibrium in wages show increased international economic integration only leads to tighter international wage competition if countries are sufficiently symmetric. For the asymmetric case the comparative advantage and relative size of the country detfirmine whether and how economic integration leads to lower wages.
    Keywords: J50 ; J31 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; Lohnverhandlungen ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Internationaler Wettbewerb ; Lohnbildung ; Lohntheorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bier ; Brauerei ; Globalisierung ; Branchenentwicklung ; Unternehmenshistorische Forschung ; Belgien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: We estimate how trade openness affects the relationship between wages, labour productivity and foreign wages using sector-level time series for several EU member states. In some countries wages became less responsive to foreign wages as trade costs declined. We show this counter-intuitive result is as expected when wages are set by a monopoly union with a preference for wages relative to employment. Trade liberalisation then leads to more wage discipline by forcing unions to set wages more in line with labour productivity. Foreign wages simultaneously become less relevant. Our results call to rethink how trade liberalisation is affecting unionised labour markets, and offer a possible explanation for the mixed evidence found by some tests for international factor price convergence.
    Keywords: J50 ; J31 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; Unions ; globalisation ; economic geography ; factor price equalisation ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Lohnpolitik ; Lohnniveau ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Faktorpreisausgleich ; Gewerkschaftsmitgliedschaft ; Globalisierung ; Transaktionskosten ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: De hoge (para)-fiscale druk in België wordt gezien als een belangrijke oorzaak van de hoge werkloosheidsgraad. Deze hoge werkloosheidsgraad gaat echter gepaard met een hoog aantal openstaande vacatures. Men kan zich dan ook de vraag stellen of verdere lastenverlagingen zullen bijdragen tot een vfirmindering van de werkloosheidsgraad. Deze studie beschrijft een eenvoudig maar realistisch kader waarbinnen de effecten van arbeidsmarktmaatregelen op de werkloosheid kunnen worden beschreven. Bij een vergelijking tussen België en Denemaken van de factoren die de werkloosheidsduur bepalen blijkt dat het Belgisch systeem van uitkeringen die niet beperkt zijn in de tijd de werkloosheidsduur significant verlengt.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Dutch
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  • 9
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: We estimate how trade openness affects the relationship between wages, labour productivity and foreign wages using sector-level time series for several EU member states. In some countries wages became less responsive to foreign wages as trade costs declined. We show this counter-intuitive result is as expected when wages are set by a monopoly union with a preference for wages relative to employment. Trade liberalisation then leads to more wage discipline by forcing unions to set wages more in line with labour productivity. Foreign wages simultaneously become less relevant. Our results call to rethink how trade liberalisation is affecting unionized labour markets, and offer a possible explanation for the mixed evidence found by some tests for international factor price convergence.
    Keywords: J50 ; ddc:330 ; Unions ; globalisation ; economic geography ; factor price equalisation ; Außenhandelsliberalisierung ; Lohnpolitik ; Lohnniveau ; Arbeitsproduktivität ; Faktorpreisausgleich ; Gewerkschaftlicher Organisationsgrad ; Globalisierung ; Transaktionskosten ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance
    Publication Date: 2019-02-04
    Description: This paper analyses the wage demands of a sector-level monopoly union facing internationally mobile firms. A simple two-country economic geography model is used to describe how firms relocate in function of international di erences in production costs and market size. The union sets wages in function of the firm level labour demand elasticity and the responsiveness of firms to relocate internationally. If countries are suffciently symmetric lower foreign wages and lower trade costs necessarily lead to lower union wage demands. With asymmetric countries these intuitive properties do not always hold. But even for symmetric countries it holds that small increases in market size or trade costs makes union wages more sensitive to the foreign wage level.
    Keywords: J50 ; J31 ; F16 ; ddc:330 ; Unions ; globalisation ; economic geography ; Gewerkschaftspolitik ; Lohn ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Standortwahl ; Wirtschaftsgeographie ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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