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  • 1
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW)
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Knowledge flows within and across countries should be carriers of important learning spillovers. We use data on 1.5 million patents and 4.5 million citations to analyze knowledge flows across 147 subnational regions. We estimate that only 15% of average knowledge is learned outside the average region of origin, and only 9% outside the country of origin. However, knowledge in highly technological sectors flows substantially farther and knowledge generated by technological leaders does also. If compared to trade flows, knowledge flows reach much farther. Moreover, external accessible knowledge has very strong external impact on innovation for a panel of 113 European and North American regions over 22 years.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Knowledge Flows ; Gravity Equation ; R&D Spillovers ; Patent Citations ; Regions ; Wissenstransfer ; Innovationsdiffusion ; Externer Effekt ; Forschung ; Patent ; Räumliche Innovationsdiffusion ; Spillover-Effekt ; Gravitationsmodell ; Schätzung ; Vereinigte Staaten ; EU-Staaten ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-11
    Description: In this paper we analyze the response of career, employment and wage of native Europeans to immigration. We then ask how individual country's policies affect these responses. We use data on 11 EU countries, over the period 1995-2001. We also use the 1991 distribution of immigrants by nationality across European labor markets to construct a version of the enclave-based instrument to proxy for the flow of immigrants, that is exogenous to local demand shocks. We find that native Europeans are more likely to upgrade to more skilled and better paid occupations, when a larger number of immigrants enter their labor market. We find no evidence of an increased likelihood of non-employment or geographical mobility. We find that more flexible labor markets in a country are a key factor to have employment upgrading in response to immigration.
    Keywords: J61 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; Immigrants ; Europe ; Occupation upgrading ; Mobility ; Labor market policies
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Cambridge, Mass: NBER
    Publication Date: 2012-09-28
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-06-14
    Description: In this paper we study the impact of immigration to the United States on the vote for the Republican Party by analyzing county-level data on election outcomes between 1990 and 2010. Our main contribution is to separate the effect of high-skilled and low-skilled immigrants, by exploiting the different geography and timing of the inflows of these two groups of immigrants. We find that an increase in the first type of immigrants decreases the share of the Republican vote, while an inflow of the second type increases it. These effects are mainly due to the local impact of immigrants on votes of U.S. citizens and they seem independent of the country of origin of immigrants. We also find that the pro- Republican impact of low-skilled immigrants is stronger in low-skilled and non-urban counties. This is consistent with citizens' political preferences shifting towards the Republican Party in places where low-skilled immigrants are more likely to be perceived as competition in the labor market and for public resources.
    Keywords: F22 ; J61 ; ddc:330 ; International topics ; Labour markets
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Frederiksberg: Copenhagen Business School (CBS), Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2019-12-11
    Description: The offshoring of production by multinational firms has expanded dramatically in recent decades, increasing the potential for economic growth and technological transfers. What determines the location of such offshore production? How do the policies and characteristics of countries affect these decisions? Do firms choose specific countries because of their policies or because they are more familiar with them? In this paper, we use a very rich dataset on Danish firms to analyze how their decisions regarding offshore production depend on institutional characteristics and firm-specific bilateral connections with these countries. We find that institutions that enhance investor protections and reduce corruption increase the probability of offshoring, while those that introduce regulatory constraints in the labor market discourage it. We also show that offshoring activities are more likely for firms that have developed networks in the country of destination.
    Keywords: F16 ; J24 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; Offshoring ; product market ; labor regulations ; network ; fixed costs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-07-17
    Description: The H-1B program allows skilled foreign-born individuals to work in the United States. The annual quota on new H-1B issuances fell from 195,000 to 65,000 for employees of most firms in fiscal year 2004. This cap did not apply to new employees of colleges, universities, and non-profit research institutions. Existing H-1B holders seeking to renew their visa were also exempt from the quota. Using a triple difference approach, this paper demonstrates that cap restrictions significantly reduced the employment of new H-1B workers in for-profit firms relative to what would have occurred in an unconstrained environment. Employment of similar natives in for-profit firms did not change, consistent with a low degree of substitutability between H-1B and native workers. The restriction also redistributed H-1Bs toward computer-related occupations, Indian-born workers, and firms using the H-1B program intensively.
    Keywords: J61 ; F22 ; F22 ; O33 ; R10 ; ddc:330 ; skilled workers ; H-1B ; natural experiment
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Hamburg: Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA)
    Publication Date: 2019-10-02
    Description: The extremely large disparities in employment rates across Italian regions, and the bad performance of the Italian economy in terms of job creation in the 80´s and early 90´s make job creation a top-priority in the economic policy agenda. This paper uses data on employment from 784 Local Labor Systems (LLS´s) covering the whole Italian territory to analyze job creation and its covariates for the 1981-1996 period. Local agglomeration economies, in particular input-output linkages, social characteristics, in particular the crime rate, and infrastructure growth are found to be important determinants of employment growth across Italian LLS´s. Using these estimates and data relative to 1996, we assess the potential for job creation in the LLS´s for the next decade. The Northeast still proves to be the area with strongest potentials, while in the South Abruzzi and Northern Campania are the areas best equipped for filling their gap with the North.
    Keywords: O1 ; R3 ; R0 ; ddc:330 ; Local Agglomeration Economies ; Employment Growth ; Italian Regions ; Regionaler Arbeitsmarkt ; Agglomerationseffekt ; Industriestandort ; Standortfaktor ; Beschäftigungseffekt ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Schätzung ; Italien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Davis, CA: University of California, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: In this paper we estimate the dynamic relationship between resources used in R&D by some OECD countries and their innovation output as measured by patent applications. We first estimate a long-run cointegration relation using recently developed tests and panel estimation techniques. We find that the stock of knowledge of a country, its R&D resources and the stock of international knowledge move together in the long run. Then, imposing this long-run relation across variables we analyze the impulse response of new ideas to a shock to R&D or to a shock to innovation by estimating an error correction mechanism. We find that internationally generated ideas have a very significant impact in helping innovation in a country. As a consequence, a positive shock to innovation in a large country as the US has, both in the short and in the long run, a significant positive effect on the innovation of all other countries.
    Keywords: F43 ; O31 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Panel Cointegration ; Error Correction Mechanism ; International R&D Spillovers ; Forschung ; Innovation ; Patent ; Panel ; Kointegration ; OECD-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Davis, CA: University of California, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: The presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) should benefit local economies. In particular if MNEs are particularly productive compared to domestic firms they may promote learning and catch-up of local firms. Such channel of spillovers from MNEs to local firms is known as the Veblen Geschenkron effect. Rather than the overall density of MNE in a region or sector, it is their productivity advantage on the local firm to determine the positive effect on domestic productivity growth.We test this hypothesis using firm level data for German and Italian company for the 90''s. and we find evidence of a significant and robust Veblen-Gerschenkrion effect. The initial total factor productivity advantage of MNEs on local firm acts as a stimulus for productivity growth of local firms in the same region.
    Keywords: F23 ; O47 ; R11 ; ddc:330 ; Veblen-Gerschenkron Effect ; FDI ; Spillovers ; Productivity ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; Spillover-Effekt ; Direktinvestition ; Regionale Entwicklung ; Produktivität ; Vergleich ; Schätzung ; Italien 〈Süd〉 ; Neue Bundesländer ; Italien ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Davis, CA: University of California, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Italy makes for a very interesting case study of the impact of social variables on economic performance. Across its provinces, differences in social and cultural attitudes seem associated to large differences in economic development. We analyze the importance of some social variables on industrialization and on employment creation across 95 Italian provinces during the period 1951-1991. On one hand we find little evidence that civic involvement (Social Capital) was associated with industrial and economic development. On the other hand we find strong evidence that organized crime, measured as high murder rates, was negatively correlated with industrial and economic development. We use measures of murder rates in the distant past to suggest that the correlation captures, at least in part, a stable and possibly causal link between organized crime and lack of employment growth.
    Keywords: O52 ; Z13 ; R3 ; ddc:330 ; Industrial Development ; Regional Productivity ; Italian Provinces ; Civic Spirit ; Murder Rates ; Industrialisierung ; Social Capital ; Kriminalität ; Regionale Entwicklung ; Italien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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