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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0441
    Keywords: Stochastic frontiers ; Airline companies ; Technical efficiency ; Operating environment ; Net efficiency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract The principal aim of this paper is to measure the efficiency of international airlines. We obtain measures of technical efficiency from stochastic frontier production functions which have been adjusted to account for environmental influences such as network conditions, geographical factors, etc. We observe that two alternative approaches to this problem have been proposed in the efficiency measurement literature. One assumes that the environmental factors influence the shape of the technology while the other assumes that they directly influence the degree of technical inefficiency. In this paper we compare the results obtained when using these two approaches. The two sets of results provide similar rankings of airlines but suggest differing degrees of technical inefficiency. Both sets of results also suggest that Asian/Oceanic airlines are technically more efficient than European and North American airlines but that the differences are essentially due to more favourable environmental conditions. Nevertheless, it is among Asian companies that the major improvements in managerial efficiency (technical efficiency with environmental factors netted out) took place over the sample period (1977–1990).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0441
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract We estimate a factor requirement frontier for European railways using a panel data approach in which technical efficiency is assumed to be endogeneously determined. This approach has two main outcomes. On one hand, it allows the identification of factors influencing technical efficiency, and on the other hand, it allows the estimation of alternative efficiency indicators free of these influences. In the case under study, a particular attention is devoted to an autonomy indicator representing the managerial freedom, with respect to public authorities, experienced by firms, that appears to be positively correlated with technical efficiency.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: For the last two decades, the increase of employment among individuals aged 50+ has been a policy objective on the European employment agenda. The present paper focuses on the case of Belgium, France, Germany, and The Netherlands over the period 1997–2011. First, we provide descriptive analysis of older workers’employment using data from the European Union Labour Force Survey. Second, we use econometric techniques to explain the different employment and hours of work patterns for various sub-groups of older workers over time. We find evidence of catching up of older generation’s employment rates—with no rupture at the financial crisis in 2007. Third, we use micro-simulation techniques to decompose the effects of structural changes, as well as extensive and intensive labor supply changes.
    Keywords: J08 ; J21 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; Retirement ; Employment ; Hours of work
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 4
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    Colchester: University of Essex, Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Belgium has seen major changes in its tax-benefit system over the past twenty years. These changes have, to a large extent, co-determined the evolution of disposable incomes of Belgian households on one hand, and their incentives to work on the other. In this paper we assess equity and efficiency aspects of changes in tax-benefit policies over the full course of 1992-2012. By simulating effects of current and past tax-benefit policies using the microsimulation model MEFISTO-EUROMOD, we summarize the shifts in policy orientation over this period using two summary measures of redistribution and work incentives.Our three main findings are: 1) the changes in the tax-benefit system have to a large extent been pro-poor, and redistribution has been increased; 2) the introduction of an earned income tax credit and the lowering of personal income taxes has contributed to improve work incentives, but this effect was partially eroded by an increase in unemployment benefits since 2000; 3) the results crucially depend on whether one chooses as 'no policy change' counterfactual indexation with inflation or indexation with nominal wage growth.
    Keywords: C81 ; H21 ; H41 ; J20 ; ddc:330 ; Labour supply ; Marginal Cost of Public Funds ; Microsimulation ; Redistribution ; Taxation ; Tax-Benefit system
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-03
    Description: For the last two decades, the increase of employment among cohorts of individuals aged 50+ has been a policy objective on the European employment agenda. The present paper takes stock of the situation as observed in Belgium over the time period 1997-2011. First, we provide analysis on the evolution of older workers' employment in Belgium and its neighboring countries Germany, France and the Netherlands using the EU Labour Force Survey. Second, we characterize the different employment and hours of work patterns for different age sub‐groups (50‐54, 55‐59, 60‐64) and provide evidence on their respective evolution. The results show that employment rates among older workers started to catch‐up with employment rates of younger cohorts as of 2001, and with more acuity after 2006. This effect dominates the observed negative effect on hours of work and hence leads to an increase in total hours of work of the cohort – net of any purely demographic effects.
    Keywords: J08 ; J21 ; J26 ; ddc:330 ; retirement ; employment ; hours of work
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Luxembourg: Luxembourg Income Study (LIS)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: This paper focuses on the effect ageing has on intragenerational equity in seven LIS countries. Using current distribution schemes as baselines, the authors compare the projected effects of four benefit scenarios on aged inequality.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: The pool of early retirees is characterized by a large heterogeneity along several criteria. The present paper focuses on the key distinction between those in forced early retirement and those who retire early by individual choice. We start by estimating a retirement probit model for older workers in Belgium. Based on these estimates, we then perform micro-simulations relating to a hypothetical actuarial reform of a pension system, i.e., a reform imposing on average actuarial neutrality with respect to the time of retirement. We explore two scenarios, one where the entire population is subjected to the actuarial system, and one where a duly screened sub-sample of the unemployed is shielded against these actuarial adjustment factors, a group we call the truly unemployed. We evaluate the impact on the average retirement age, the pension budgets as well as indicators of redistribution within the group of the elderly. We find that the extra budgetary gain of exposing this subgroup to the full-blown reform is modest, while the distributional cost is rather high. Our results thus comfort the idea that the budgetary cost of a focused unemployment system are moderate, and that returning the unemployment insurance to its primary role might be a desirable strategy.
    Keywords: H31 ; I3 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; retirement ; older worker ; inequality ; Flexible Altersgrenze ; Arbeitslosigkeit ; Einkommensverteilung ; Gini-Koeffizient ; Schätzung ; Belgien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The present paper analyzes the budgetary impact of various Social Security reforms in the Belgian institutional setting. Our approach relies on parameters that were derived in Dellis et alii (2002) using a micro-modeling strategy. Focusing our attention on a hypothetical age cohort, we illustrate the budgetary impact that the reforms considered might have on the budget of the federal government.
    Keywords: H3 ; J0 ; I3 ; ddc:330 ; aging ; retirement ; incentives ; pension reform ; Rentenreform ; Alterssicherung ; Wirtschaftspolitische Wirkungsanalyse ; Simulation ; Altersgrenze ; Öffentlicher Haushalt ; Belgien ; Mikrosimulation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Many Belgian retire well before the statutory retirement age. Numerous exit routes from the labor force can be identified: old-age pensions, conventional early retirement, disability insurance, and unemployment insurance are the most prominent ones. We analyze the retirement decision of Belgian workers adopting an option value framework, and pay special attention to the role of health status. We estimate probit models of retirement using data from SHARE. The results show that health and incentives matter in the decision to exit from the labor market. Based on these results, we simulate the effect of potential reforms on retirement.
    Keywords: H55 ; J21 ; J26 ; J14 ; ddc:330 ; unemployment ; early retirement ; disability ; social security ; pensions ; labor force participation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: The paper analyzes the link between old-age income programs and economic outcomes in Belgium. We use a simulation methodology to construct an average pension generosity variable. Our regression analysis explores the link with distributional outcomes in income, consumption and more subjective indicators. Results document the weak link between average generosity and distributional outcomes across a heterogeneous population.
    Keywords: I32 ; H55 ; H31 ; I31 ; ddc:330 ; pensions ; inequality ; social security ; elderly ; Gesetzliche Rentenversicherung ; Einkommensverteilung ; Alte Menschen ; Schätzung ; Belgien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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