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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Development genes and evolution 155 (1964), S. 152-161 
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Development genes and evolution 154 (1963), S. 434-465 
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Keywords: Neurohormone D ; Heart-accelerating activity ; AKH/RPCH-family of peptides ; Structure-function relationship ; Periplaneta americana
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relative potencies of 11 naturally-occurring peptides of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigmentconcentrating hormone family (AKH/RPCH-family) have been assessed with respect to increase in heart rate in adult, female American cockroaches,Periplaneta americana, in in vitro and in vivo bioassays. In addition, analogues that lacked the N-terminal pyroglutamate residue or had a free threonine acid at the C-terminus were also investigated. In both bioassays the N- or C-terminal-modified analogues give no or little response suggesting that blocked termini are essential for receptor-binding. In both bioassays the naturally-occurring peptide from the cockroach corpus cardiacum Pea-CAH-I (neurohormone D) is more potent than the second endogenous peptide, Pea-CAH-II. On the basis of this result and previous data it is proposed that neurohormone D is the only physiologically important “true” cardioactive peptide. The dose-response curves of the other peptides indicate that in octapeptides, amino acid residues at positions 2, 6, and 7 are important for receptor-recognition, and that decapeptides are not as effective as octapeptides (exception: the peptide Rom-CC-I isolated from the grasshopperRomalea microptera).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The heart rate accelerating peptide neurohormone D is rapidly inactivated by intact Malpighian tubules of cockroaches and also by homogenates of them. The peptide is removed from a solution by an active uptake mechanism. Within the tubule cells one or a set of soluble proteinases with a molecular mass around 45000 Da hydrolyze the neuropeptide. The inhibition of the reaction by synthetic protease inhibitors and chelating agents characterizes the enzyme(s) as metalloendopeptidase with serine or cysteine at the active site. This seems to be the first evidence that a peptidase comparable to the neutral metalloendopeptidase of mammalian kidney microvilli exists in insect Malpighian tubules and could play an important role in the hydrolysis of neuropeptides.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Frontal ganglion ; Periplaneta ; Synaptic contacts ; Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The frontal ganglion, part of the stomatogastric nervous system, contains about 60 to 80 neurons, 25 to 30 μm in diameter. A well developed Golgi system, producing dense-core vesicles, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies and dense bodies are abundant. Glia elements are sparsely distributed. Many nerve fibres contain granules of different size and electron density. Five groups of fibres can be distinguished: Fibres with granules of about 200 nm (type A), fibres with granules of about 160 to 170 nm (type B), fibres with granules of about 80 to 100 nm (type C) and those with synaptic vesicles of 50 nm (type D) respectively. A fifth very small type contains neither vesicles nor granules. Special attention was paid to synaptic contacts. The divergent dyad seems to be the main type in the frontal ganglion. Frequently, neurosecretory endings are observed in presynaptic position. Immunocytochemical “staining” of neurosecretory material closely corresponds to the distribution of type A fibres, as observed electron microscopically. Immunoelectrophoresis of extracts from frontal ganglia with polyspecific anti-neurosecretion-serum reveals a single precipitation line, indicating that the immunocytochemical localization of neurosecretory material is due to reaction with a specific as well as a crossreagent antibody.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Proctolin ; Periplaneta americana ; Terminal ganglion-hindgut system ; Immunocytochemistry ; Cobalt iontophoresis technique
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the American cockroach, the distribution and connections of neuronal elements of the terminal ganglion-proctodeal nerve-hindgut system were investigated by means of immunohistochemical methods and axonal CoCl2 iontophoresis. Proctolinlike immunoreactivity was localized within neurons of the terminal ganglion projecting into the proctodeal nerve on the one hand, and in nerve cells without a direct connection to this system on the other. Immunohistochemically, in whole mount preparations fibres of the proctodeal nerve and terminal structures in the hindgut musculature exhibit strong proctolinlike immunoreactivity. At the light- and electron-microscopic levels the pathways of about 30 somata of the proctodeal neural system were characterized by cobalt chloride iontophoresis. The relationships of cobalt filled and immunoreactive neuronal structures are discussed. For the preparation of tritiated proctolin we thank Dr. S. Reißmann, WB Biochemie, Sektion Biologie, FSU Jena
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Antennal heart ; Neurone morphology ; DUM-neurone ; Suboesophageal ganglion ; Neurohaemal organ ; Periplaneta americana (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Innervation of the antennal heart, an independent accessory circulatory motor in the head of insects, was investigated in the cockroach Periplaneta americana by use of axonal cobalt filling and transmission electron microscopy. The muscles associated with this organ are innervated by neurones located in a part of the suboesophageal ganglion, generally considered to be formed by the mandibular neuromere. Dorsal unpaired median (DUM) and paired contralateral neurones were stained. The axons of all these neurones run along the circumoesophageal connectives and through the paired nervus corporis cardiaci III into the corpora cardiaca. They pass through these organs forming fine arborizations there and exit anteriorly as a small pair of nerves which terminate at the antennal heart-dilator muscles. Numerous branches of these nerves extend beyond the lateral borders of the large transverse dilator muscle and terminate in the ampullar walls of the antennal heart. These neurosecretory fibres form neurohaemal areas which obviously release their products into the haemolymph, which is pumped into the antennae. The possible functions of the neurones associated with the antennal heart are discussed with respect to both, their role as a modulatory input for the circulatory motor and as a neurohormonal release site.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Insect stomatogastric nervous system ; Frontal ganglion ; Neurohistology ; Neuroanatomy ; Cobalt sulfide technique
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The frontal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana was studied histologically and its neuronal pathways were mapped by use of axonal cobalt iontophoresis. Neurons and fiber tracts of the frontal ganglion are directly linked with different regions of the central nervous system (tritocerebrum, protocerebrum, subesophageal ganglion) and with the more caudal parts of the stomatogastric nervous system (hypocerebral ganglion, nervus oesophagei).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Insect stomatogastric nervous system ; Retrocerebral complex ; Neuroanatomy ; Cobalt sulfide technique ; Periplaneta
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The neuronal pathways connecting the stomatogastric nervous system with the retrocerebral complex of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, were investigated by means of axonal cobalt chloride iontophoresis. Somata in the hypocerebral ganglion and in the nervus recurrens sending their axons to different parts of the stomatogastric nervous system were traced. Some axons in the oesophageal nerve arise from large perikarya in the anterior part of the pars intercerebralis and pass via the NCCI to the corpora cardiaca and the oesophageal nerve. They form a profuse dendritic tree in the protocerebrum. Fibers of the NCC I and NCC II as well as the NCA I and NCA II enter the stomatogastric nervous system via the hypocerebral ganglion.
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