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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earths surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN36026 , IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The SMAP microwave radiometer is a fully-polarimetric L-band radiometer flown on the SMAP satellite in a 6 AM/ 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude. Since April, 2015, the radiometer is under calibration and validation to assess the quality of the radiometer L1B data product. Calibration methods including the SMAP L1B TA2TB (from Antenna Temperature (TA) to the Earth's surface Brightness Temperature (TB)) algorithm and TA forward models are outlined, and validation approaches to calibration stability/quality are described in this paper including future work. Results show that the current radiometer L1B data satisfies its requirements.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN35975
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI) drove both the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) microwave radiometer hardware and Level 1 science algorithm designs to use new technology and techniques for the first time on a spaceflight project. Care was taken to provide special features allowing the detection and removal of harmful interference in order to meet the error budget. Nonetheless, the project accepted a risk that RFI and its mitigation would exceed the 1.3-K error budget. Thus, RFI will likely remain a challenge afterwards due to its changing and uncertain nature. To address the challenge, we seek to answer the following questions: How does RFI evolve over the SMAP lifetime? What calibration error does the changing RFI environment cause? Can time series information be exploited to reduce these errors and improve calibration for all science products reliant upon SMAP radiometer data? In this talk, we address the first question.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN47537 , Science Utilization of SMAP (SUSMAP) Meeting; Oct 19, 2017 - Oct 20, 2017; Cambridge, MA; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Current performance and existing problems in SMAP radiometer L1B_TB version 3 data product are described. The post-launch calibration algorithm has been updated by calibrating the three calibration parameters (the equivalent noise temperature of the noise diode, the offset of the reference load, and the antenna gain) jointly by using the global ocean and CS with both 110o and 180o pitch maneuvers after the reflector emissivity is calibrated. The results show that both calibration drift during eclipse season and bias over CS are removed. The RMSDs of the calibration drift over both the global ocean and CS are less than 0.1 K, and the goals of the calibration algorithm upgrade are achieved for coming L1B_TB version 4 data release.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN53661 , Microwave Radiometry and Remote Sensing of the Environment (MicroRad 2018); Mar 27, 2018 - Mar 30, 2018; Cambridge, MA; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: SMAP mission was launched on 31st January 2015 in a 6 AM 6 PM sun-synchronous orbit at 685 km altitude to measure soil moisture and freethaw globally. The passive instrument of SMAP is a fully polarimetric L-band radiometer (1.4GHz) operating with a bandwidth of 24MHz. The radiometer L1B data product version 3 has been released for public science activities. Post-launch calibration and validation activities are described in [4,5]. Validation results show that SMAP antenna temperature (TA) is 2.6 K warmer over galactic Cold Sky (CS), and land TB is 2.6 K colder comparing to SMOS land TB (compared at the top of the atmosphere) after the update of the reflectors thermal model. Due to the biases, the SMAP radiometer is under re-calibration for next data release in 2018.We present the updated calibration approaches for the SMAP radiometer product. We will discuss the various radiometer calibration parameters and part of the validation process and result.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN44842 , 2017 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium; Jul 23, 2017 - Jul 28, 2017; Fort Worth, TX; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007). The observatory was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The goal of the SMAP is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. The L-band radiometer is the passive portion of the spaceborne instrument. It measures all four Stokes antenna temperatures and outputs counts. The Level 1B Brightness Temperature (L1B_TB) science algorithm converts radiometer counts to the Earths surface brightness temperature. The results are reported in the radiometer level 1B data product together with the calibrated antenna temperature (TA) and all of the corrections to the unwanted sources contribution. The calibrated L1B data product are required to satisfy the overall radiometer error budget of 1.3 K needed to meet the soil moisture requirement of 0.04 volumetric fraction uncertainty and the calibration drift requirement of no larger than 0.4 K per month.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN33537-1 , IGARSS 2016 Conference; Jul 10, 2016 - Jul 15, 2016; Beijing; China
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007) [1]. It is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. One of the spaceborne instruments is an L-band radiometer with a shared single feedhorn and parabolic mesh reflector. While the radiometer measures the emission over a footprint of interest, unwanted emissions are also received by the antenna through the antenna sidelobes from the cosmic background and other error sources such as the Sun, the Moon and the galaxy. Their effects need to be considered accurately, and the analysis of the overall performance of the radiometer requires end-to-end performance simulation from Earth emission to antenna brightness temperature, such as the global simulation of L-band brightness temperature simulation over land and sea [2]. To assist with the SMAP radiometer level 1B algorithm development, the SMAP forward brightness temperature simulator is developed by adapting the Aquarius simulator [2] with necessary modifications. This poster presents the current status of the SMAP forward brightness simulator s development including incorporating the land microwave emission model and its input datasets, and a simplified atmospheric radiative transfer model. The latest simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the ability of supporting the SMAP L1B algorithm development.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC.CPR.7020.2012 , IEEE 2012 Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium; Jul 23, 2012 - Jul 27, 2012; Munich; Germany
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-band microwave radiometer is a conical scanning instrument designed to measure soil moisture with 4 percent volumetric accuracy at 40-kilometer spatial resolution. SMAP is NASA's first Earth Systematic Mission developed in response to its first Earth science decadal survey. Here, the design is reviewed and the results of its first year on orbit are presented. Unique features of radiometer include a large 6-meter rotating reflector, fully polarimetric radiometer receiver with internal calibration, and radio-frequency interference detection and filtering hardware. The radiometer electronics are thermally controlled to achieve good radiometric stability. Analyses of on-orbit results indicate the electrical and thermal characteristics of the electronics and internal calibration sources are very stable and promote excellent gain stability. Radiometer NEdT (Noise Equivalent differential Temperature) less than 1 degree Kelvin for 17-millisecond samples. The gain spectrum exhibits low noise at frequencies greater than 1 megahertz and 1 divided by f (pink) noise rising at longer time scales fully captured by the internal calibration scheme. Results from sky observations and global swath imagery of all four Stokes antenna temperatures indicate the instrument is operating as expected.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography; Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN46074 , IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing (ISSN 0196-2892) (e-ISSN 1558-0644); 55; 4; 1954-1966
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The SMAP is one of four first-tier missions recommended by the US National Research Council's Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space (Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, Space Studies Board, National Academies Press, 2007)]. The observatory was launched on Jan 31, 2015. The goal of the SMAP is to measure the global soil moisture and freeze/thaw from space. The L-band radiometer is the passive portion of the spaceborne instrument. It measures all four Stokes antenna temperatures and outputs counts. The Level 1B Brightness Temperature (L1B_TB) science algorithm converts radiometer counts to the Earths surface brightness temperature. The results are reported in the radiometer level 1B data product together with the calibrated antenna temperature (TA) and all of the corrections to the unwanted sources contribution. The calibrated L1B data product are required to satisfy the overall radiometer error budget of 1.3 K needed to meet the soil moisture requirement of 0.04 volumetric fraction uncertainty and the calibration drift requirement of no larger than 0.4 K per month.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN33537-2 , IGARSS 2016 Conference; Jul 10, 2016 - Jul 15, 2016; Beijing; China
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The purpose of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radiometer calibration algorithm is to convert Level 0 (L0) radiometer digital counts data into calibrated estimates of brightness temperatures referenced to the Earth's surface within the main beam. The algorithm theory in most respects is similar to what has been developed and implemented for decades for other satellite radiometers; however, SMAP includes two key features heretofore absent from most satellite borne radiometers: radio frequency interference (RFI) detection and mitigation, and measurement of the third and fourth Stokes parameters using digital correlation. The purpose of this document is to describe the SMAP radiometer and forward model, explain the SMAP calibration algorithm, including approximations, errors, and biases, provide all necessary equations for implementing the calibration algorithm and detail the RFI detection and mitigation process. Section 2 provides a summary of algorithm objectives and driving requirements. Section 3 is a description of the instrument and Section 4 covers the forward models, upon which the algorithm is based. Section 5 gives the retrieval algorithm and theory. Section 6 describes the orbit simulator, which implements the forward model and is the key for deriving antenna pattern correction coefficients and testing the overall algorithm.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology; Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN30144
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