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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    New York [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: M 93.0653 ; AWI A6-92-0220
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xiv, 710 S.
    Edition: 2. ed., corr. 2. printing
    ISBN: 038796388X
    Classification: A.2.10.
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: 1 Preliminaries. - 1.1 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. - 1.2 The Rossby Number. - 1.3 Density Stratification. - 1.4 The Equations of Motion in a Nonrotating Coordinate Frame. - 1.5 Rotating Coordinate Frames. - 1.6 Equations of Motion in a Rotating Coordinate Frame. - 1.7 Coriolis Acceleration and the Rossby Number. - 2 Fundamentals. - 2.1 Vorticity. - 2.2 The Circulation. - 2.3 Kelvin's Theorem. - 2.4 The Vorticity Equation. - 2.5 Potential Vorticity. - 2.6 The Thermal Wind. - 2.7 The Taylor-Proudman Theorem. - 2.8 Geostrophic Motion. - 2.9 Consequences of the Geostrophic and Hydrostatic Approximations. - 2.10 Geostrophic Degeneracy. - 3 lnviscid Shallow-Water Theory. - 3.1 Introduction. - 3.2 The Shallow-Water Model. - 3.3 The Shallow-Water Equations. - 3.4 Potential-Vorticity Conservation: Shallow-Water Theory. - 3.5 Integral Constraints. - 3.6 Small-Amplitude Motions. - 3.7 Linearized Geostrophic Motion. - 3.8 Plane Waves in a Layer of Constant Depth. - 3.9 Poincare and Kelvin Waves. - 3.10 The Rossby Wave. - 3.11 Dynamic Diagnosis of the Rossby Wave. - 3.12 Quasigeostrophic Scaling in Shallow-Water Theory. - 3.13 Steady Quasigeostrophic Motion. - 3.14 Inertial Boundary Currents. - 3.15 Quasigeostrophic Rossby Waves. - 3.16 The Mechanism for the Rossby Wave. - 3.17 The Beta-Plane. - 3.18 Rossby Waves in a Zonal Current. - 3.19 Group Velocity. - 3.20 The Method of Multiple Time Scales. - 3.21 Energy and Energy Flux in Rossby Waves. - 3.22 The Energy Propagation Diagram. - 3.23 Reflection and the Radiation Condition. - 3.24 Rossby Waves Produced by an Initial Disturbance. - 3.25 Quasigeostrophic Normal Modes in Closed Basins. - 3.26 Resonant Interactions. - 3.27 Energy and Enstrophy. - 3.28 Geostrophic Turbulence. - Appendix to Chapter 3. - 4 Friction and Viscous Flow. - 4.1 Introduction. - 4.2 Turbulent Reynolds Stresses. - 4.3 The Ekman Layer. - 4.4 The Nature of Nearly Frictionless Flow. - 4.5 Boundary-Layer Theory. - 4.6 Quasigeostrophic Dynamics in the Presence of Friction. - 4.7 Spin-Down. - 4.8 Steady Motion. - 4.9 Ekman Layer on a Sloping Surface. - 4.10 Ekman Layer on a Free Surface. - 4.11 Quasigeostrophic Potential Vorticity Equation with Friction and Topography. - 4.12 The Decay of a Rossby Wave. - 4.13 Side-Wall Friction Layers. - 4.14 The Dissipation of Ens trophy in Geostrophic Turbulence. - 5 Homogeneous Models of the Wind-Driven Oceanic Circulation. - 5.1 Introduction. - 5.2 The Homogeneous Model. - 5.3 The Sverdrup Relation. - 5.4 Meridional Boundary Layers: the Munk Layer. - 5.5 Stommel's Model: Bottom Friction Layer. - 5.6 Inertial Boundary-Layer Theory. - 5.7 Inertial Currents in the Presence of Friction. - 5.8 Rossby Waves and the Westward Intensification of the Oceanic Circulation. - 5.9 Dissipation Integrals for Steady Circulations. - 5.10 Free Inertial Modes. - 5.11 Numerical Experiments. - 5.12 Ekman Upwelling Circulations. - 5.13 The Effect of Bottom Topography. - 5.14 Concluding Remarks on the Homogeneous Model. - 6 Quasigeostrophic Motion of a Stratified Fluid on a Sphere. - 6.1 Introduction. - 6.2 The Equations of Motion in Spherical Coordinates: Scaling. - 6.3 Geostrophic Approximation: ε = O(L/r0 ) ≪ 1. - 6.4 The Concept of Static Stability. - 6.5 Quasigeostrophic Potential-Vorticity Equation for Atmospheric Synoptic Scales. - 6.6 The Ekman Layer in a Stratified Fluid. - 6.7 Boundary Conditions for the Potential-Vorticity Equation: the Atmosphere. - 6.8 Quasigeostrophic Potential-Vorticity Equation for Oceanic Synoptic Scales. - 6.9 Boundary Conditions for the Potential-Vorticity Equation: the Oceans. - 6.10 Geostrophic Energy Equation and Available Potential Energy. - 6.11 Rossby Waves in a Stratified Fluid. - 6.12 Rossby-Wave Normal Modes: the Vertical Structure Equation. - 6.13 Forced Stationary Waves in the Atmosphere. - 6.14 Wave-Zonal Flow Interactions. - 6.15 Topographic Waves in a Stratified Ocean. - 6.16 Layer Models. - 6.17 Rossby Waves in the Two-Layer Model. - 6.18 The Relationship of the Layer Models to the "Level" Models. - 6.19 Geostrophic Approximation ε ≪ L/r0 〈 1; the Sverdrup Relation. - 6.20 Geostrophic Approximation ε ≪ 1, L/r0 = O(1). - 6.21 The Thermocline Problem. - 6.22 Layer Models of the Thermocline. - 6.23 Flow in Unventilated Layers: Potential Vorticity Homogenization. - 6.24 Quasigeostrophic Approximation: an Alternative Derivation. - 7 Instability Theory. - 7.1 Introduction. - 7.2 Formulation of the Instability Problem: the Continuously Stratified Model. - 7.3 The Linear Stability Problem: Conditions for Instability. - 7.4 Normal Modes. - 7.5 Bounds on the Phase Speed and Growth Rate. - 7.6 Baroclinic Instability: the Basic Mechanism. - 7.7 Eady's Model. - 7.8 Charney's Model and Critical Layers. - 7.9 Instability in the Two-Layer Model: Formulation. - 7.10 Normal Modes in the Two-Layer Model: Necessary Conditions for Instability. - 7.11 Baroclinic Instability in the Two-Layer Model: Phillips' Model. - 7.12 Effects of Friction. - 7.13 Baroclinic Instability of Nonzonal Flows. - 7.14 Barotropic Instability. - 7.15 Instability of Currents with Horizontal and Vertical Shear. - 7.16 Nonlinear Theory of Baroclinic Instability. - 7.17 Instability of Non parallel Flow. - 8 Ageostrophic Motion. - 8.1 Anisotropic Scales. - 8.2 Continental-Shelf Waves. - 8.3 Slow Circulation of a Stratified, Dissipative Fluid. - 8.4 The Theory of Frontogenesis. - 8.5 Equatorial Waves. - Selected Bibliography. - Index.
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: M 04.0551
    Description / Table of Contents: tarting with an elementary overview of the basic wave concept, specific wave phenomena are then examined, including: surface gravity waves, internal gravity waves, lee waves, waves in the presence of rotation, geostrophic adjustment, quasi-geostrophic waves and potential vorticity, wave-mean flow interaction and unstable waves. Each wave topic is used to introduce either a new technique or concept in general wave theory. Emphasis is placed on connectivity between the various subjects and on the physical interpretation of the mathematical results.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: VIII, 260 S. , graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3540003401
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Berlin [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: M 97.0094 ; PIK N 453-96-0204
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XI, 453 S.
    ISBN: 3540604898
    Classification: D.3.
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 4
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    New York [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: MOP 45623 / Mitte
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 624 S.
    Edition: 1. print.
    ISBN: 0387903682 , 3-540-90368-2
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 5
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    Cambridge University Press
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 490 (2003): 189-215, doi:10.1017/S0022112003005007.
    Description: The baroclinic instability of a zonal current on the beta-plane is studied in the context of the two-layer model when the shear of the basic current is a periodic function of time. The basic shear is contained in a zonal channel and is independent of the meridional direction. The instability properties are studied in the neighbourhood of the classical steady-shear threshold for marginal stability. It is shown that the linear problem shares common features with the behaviour of the well-known Mathieu equation. That is, the oscillatory nature of the shear tends to stabilize an otherwise unstable current while, on the contrary, the oscillation is able to destabilize a current whose time-averaged shear is stable. Indeed, this parametric instability can destabilize a flow that at every instant possesses a shear that is subcritical with respect to the standard stability threshold. This is a new source of growing disturbances. The nonlinear problem is studied in the same near neighbourhood of the marginal curve. When the time-averaged flow is unstable, the presence of the oscillation in the shear produces both periodic finite-amplitude motions and aperiodic behaviour. Generally speaking, the aperiodic behaviour appears when the amplitude of the oscillating shear exceeds a critical value depending on frequency and dissipation. When the time-averaged flow is stable, i.e. subcritical, finite-amplitude aperiodic motion occurs when the amplitude of the oscillating part of the shear is large enough to lift the flow into the unstable domain for at least part of the cycle of oscillation. A particularly interesting phenomenon occurs when the time-averaged flow is stable and the oscillating part is too small to ever render the flow unstable according to the standard criteria. Nevertheless, in this regime parametric instability occurs for ranges of frequency that expand as the amplitude of the oscillating shear increases. The amplitude of the resulting unstable wave is a function of frequency and the magnitude of the oscillating shear. For some ranges of shear amplitude and oscillation frequency there exist multiple solutions. It is suggested that the nature of the response of the finite-amplitude behaviour of the baroclinic waves in the presence of the oscillating mean flow may be indicative of the role of seasonal variability in shaping eddy activity in both the atmosphere and the ocean.
    Description: J.P.’s research is supported in part by a grant from NSF, OCE 9901654.
    Keywords: Baroclinic instability ; Baroclinic waves
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: 393774 bytes
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Cambridge University Press, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of Cambridge University Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics 481 (2003): 329-353, doi:10.1017/S0022112003004051.
    Description: In this article we investigate time-periodic shear flows in the context of the two-dimensional vorticity equation, which may be applied to describe certain large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows. The linear stability analyses of both discrete and continuous profiles demonstrate that parametric instability can arise even in this simple model: the oscillations can stabilize (destabilize) an otherwise unstable (stable) shear flow, as in Mathieu's equation (Stoker 1950). Nonlinear simulations of the continuous oscillatory basic state support the predictions from linear theory and, in addition, illustrate the evolution of the instability process and thereby show the structure of the vortices that emerge. The discovery of parametric instability in this model suggests that this mechanism can occur in geophysical shear flows and provides an additional means through which turbulent mixing can be generated in large-scale flows.
    Description: F.P.’s and G.F.’s research was supported by grants from NSF, OPP- 9910052 and OCE-0137023. J.P.’s research is supported in part by a grant from NSF, OCE-9901654.
    Keywords: Time-periodic shear flows ; Parametric instability
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: 349820 bytes
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Sears Foundation for Marine Research, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of Sears Foundation for Marine Research for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Marine Research 62 (2004): 169-193, doi:10.1357/002224004774201681.
    Description: It is well known that the barotropic, wind-driven, single-gyre ocean model reaches an inertially-dominated equilibrium with unrealistic circulation strength when the explicit viscosity is reduced to realistically low values. It is shown here that the overall circulation strength can be controlled nonlocally by retaining thin regions of enhanced viscosity parameterizing the effects of increased mixing and topographic interaction near the boundaries. The control is possible even when the inertial boundary layer width is larger than the enhanced viscosity region, as eddy fluxes of vorticity from the interior transport vorticity across the mean streamlines of the inertial boundary current to the frictional region. In relatively inviscid calculations the eddies are the major means of flux across interior mean streamlines.
    Description: B.F.-K. was supported in part by an ONR-supported NDSEG Fellowship, an MIT Presidential Fellowship, a GFDL/Princeton University postdoctoral fellowship, and a NOAA Climate and Global Change postdoctoral fellowship (managed by UCAR). Both authors were supported in part by NSF OCE 9910654.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: The topic of the Principal Lectures for the forty-ninth year of the program was “Boundary Layers”. The subject centers around those problems in which the boundary conditions lead to a large gradient near the boundary. Nine of this year’s principal lectures were given by Joe Pedlosky and the tenth was given by Steve Lentz. The fluid mechanics of boundary layers was reviewed, first starting from its classical roots and then extending the concepts to the sides, bottoms, and tops of the oceans. During week four, a mini-symposium on “Ocean Bottom and Surface Boundary Layers” gathered a number of oceanographers and meteorologists together to report recent advances. And, finally, Kerry Emanuel of MIT delivered the Sears Public Lecture to a packed hall in Clark 507. The title was “Divine Wind: The History and Sciences of Hurricanes.”
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under grant OCE-0325296 and by the Office of Naval Research, Processes and Prediction Division, Physical Oceanography Program under grant N00014-07-10776
    Keywords: Boundary layer ; Ocean circulation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 40 (2010): 1075-1086, doi:10.1175/2009JPO4375.1.
    Description: A quasigeostrophic, two-layer model is used to study the baroclinic circulation around a thin, meridionally elongated island. The flow is driven by either buoyancy forcing or wind stress, each of whose structure would produce an antisymmetric double-gyre flow. The ocean bottom is flat. When the island partially straddles the intergyre boundary, fluid from one gyre is forced to flow into the other. The amount of the intergyre flow depends on the island constant, that is, the value of the geostrophic streamfunction on the island in each layer. That constant is calculated in a manner similar to earlier studies and is determined by the average, along the meridional length of the island, of the interior Sverdrup solution just to the east of the island. Explicit solutions are given for both buoyancy and wind-driven flows. The presence of an island of nonzero width requires the determination of the baroclinic streamfunction on the basin’s eastern boundary. The value of the boundary term is proportional to the island’s area. This adds a generally small additional baroclinic intergyre flow. In all cases, the intergyre flow produced by the island is not related to topographic steering of the flow but rather the pressure anomaly on the island as manifested by the barotropic and baroclinic island constants. The vertical structure of the flow around the island is a function of the parameterization of the vertical mixing in the problem and, in particular, the degree to which long baroclinic Rossby waves can traverse the basin before becoming thermally damped.
    Description: This research was supported in part by NSF Grant OCE 0451086.
    Keywords: Gyres ; Baroclinic flows ; Topographic effects ; Streamfunction ; Orographic effects
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
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    American Meteorological Society
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 39 (2009): 1060-1068, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3996.1.
    Description: The response of a weakly stratified layer of fluid to a surface cooling distribution is investigated with linear theory in an attempt to clarify recent numerical results concerning the sinking of cooled water in polar ocean boundary currents. A channel of fluid is forced at the surface by a cooling distribution that varies in the down-channel as well as the cross-channel directions. The resulting geostrophic flow in the central region of the channel impinges on its boundaries, and regions of strong downwelling are observed. For the parameters of the problem investigated, the downwelling occurs in a classical Stewartson layer but the forcing of the layer leads to an unusual relation with the interior flow, which is forced to satisfy the thermal condition on the boundary while the geostrophic normal flow in the interior is brought to rest in the boundary layer. As a consequence of the layer’s dynamics, the resulting long-channel flow exhibits a nonmonotonic approach to the interior flow, and the strongest vertical velocities are limited to the boundary layer whose scale is so small that numerical models resolve the region only with great difficulty. The analytical model presented here is able to reproduce key features of the previous nonlinear numerical calculations.
    Description: This research was supported in part by NSF Grant OCE 0451086.
    Keywords: Forcing ; Boundary currents ; Upwelling, downwelling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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