© The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Pearlman, J., Bushnell, M., Coppola, L., Karstensen, J., Buttigieg, P. L., Pearlman, F., Simpsons, P., Barbier, M., Muller-Karger, F. E., Munoz-Mas, C., Pissierssens, P., Chandler, C., Hermes, J., Heslop, E., Jenkyns, R., Achterberg, E. P., Bensi, M., Bittig, H. C., Blandin, J., Bosch, J., Bourles, B., Bozzano, R., Buck, J. J. H., Burger, E. F., Cano, D., Cardin, V., Llorens, M. C., Cianca, A., Chen, H., Cusack, C., Delory, E., Garello, R., Giovanetti, G., Harscoat, V., Hartman, S., Heitsenrether, R., Jirka, S., Lara-Lopez, A., Lanteri, N., Leadbetter, A., Manzella, G., Maso, J., McCurdy, A., Moussat, E., Ntoumas, M., Pensieri, S., Petihakis, G., Pinardi, N., Pouliquen, S., Przeslawski, R., Roden, N. P., Silke, J., Tamburri, M. N., Tang, H., Tanhua, T., Telszewski, M., Testor, P., Thomas, J., Waldmann, C., & Whoriskey, F. Evolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019):277, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00277.
The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet’s ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies for structuring observing systems, sensor deployment and usage, and the generation of data and information products, to ethical and governance aspects when executing ocean observing. To meet the urgent, planet-wide challenges we face, methods across all aspects of ocean observing should be broadly adopted by the ocean community and, where appropriate, should evolve into “Ocean Best Practices.” While many groups have created best practices, they are scattered across the Web or buried in local repositories and many have yet to be digitized. To reduce this fragmentation, we introduce a new open access, permanent, digital repository of best practices documentation (oceanbestpractices.org) that is part of the Ocean Best Practices System (OBPS). The new OBPS provides an opportunity space for the centralized and coordinated improvement of ocean observing methods. The OBPS repository employs user-friendly software to significantly improve discovery and access to methods. The software includes advanced semantic technologies for search capabilities to enhance repository operations. In addition to the repository, the OBPS also includes a peer reviewed journal research topic, a forum for community discussion and a training activity for use of best practices. Together, these components serve to realize a core objective of the OBPS, which is to enable the ocean community to create superior methods for every activity in ocean observing from research to operations to applications that are agreed upon and broadly adopted across communities. Using selected ocean observing examples, we show how the OBPS supports this objective. This paper lays out a future vision of ocean best practices and how OBPS will contribute to improving ocean observing in the decade to come.
The Ocean Best Practices project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under grant agreement no: 633211 (AtlantOS), no. 730960 (SeaDataCloud) and no: 654310 (ODIP). Funding was also received from the NSF OceanObs Research Coordination Network under NSF grant 1143683. The Best Practices Handbook for fixed observatories has been funded by the FixO3 project financed by the European Commission through the Seventh Framework Programme for Research, grant agreement no. 312463. The Harmful Algal Blooms Forecast Report was funded by the Interreg Atlantic Area Operational Programme Project PRIMROSE (Grant Agreement No. EAPA_182/2016), and the AtlantOS project (see above). PB acknowledges funding from the Helmholtz Programme Frontiers in Arctic Marine Monitoring (FRAM) conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut. JM acknowledges fundng from the WeObserve project under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (grant agreement no. 776740). MTe acknowledges support from the US National Science Foundation grant OCE-1840868 to the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR, US) FM-K acknowledges support by NSF Grant 1728913 ‘OceanObS Research Coordination Network’. Funding was also provided by NASA grant NNX14AP62A ‘National Marine Sanctuaries as Sentinel Sites for a Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON)’ funded under the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP RFP NOAA-NOS-IOOS-2014-2003803 in partnership between NOAA, BOEM, and NASA), and the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office.
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