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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-12-23
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Springer for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Earth Science Informatics 8 (2015): 721-739, doi:10.1007/s12145-014-0202-2.
    Description: By broad consensus, Open Data presents great value. However, beyond that simple statement, there are a number of complex, and sometimes contentious, issues that the science community must address. In this review, we examine the current state of the core issues of Open Data with the unique perspective and use cases of the ocean science community: interoperability; discovery and access; quality and fitness for purpose; and sustainability. The topics of Governance and Data Publication are also examined in detail. Each of the areas covered are, by themselves, complex and the approaches to the issues under consideration are often at odds with each other. Any comprehensive policy on Open Data will require compromises that are best resolved by broad community input. In the final section of the review, we provide recommendations that serve as a starting point for these discussions.
    Description: The authors acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation through Grant Award No. OCE-1143683.
    Description: 2016-01-07
    Keywords: Open Data ; Interoperability ; Governance ; Data publication
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Report of the Ocean Observation Research Coordination Network In-situ-Satellite Observation Working Group
    Description: This report is intended to illustrate and provide recommendations for how ocean observing systems of the next decade could focus on coastal environments using combined satellite and in situ measurements. Until recently, space-based observations have had surface footprints typically spanning hundreds of meters to kilometers. These provide excellent synoptic views for a wide variety of ocean characteristics. In situ observations are instead generally point or linear measurements. The interrelation between space-based and in-situ observations can be challenging. Both are necessary and as sensors and platforms evolve during the next decade, the trend to facilitate interfacing space and in-situ observations must continue and be expanded. In this report, we use coastal observation and analyses to illustrate an observing system concept that combines in situ and satellite observing technologies with numerical models to quantify subseasonal time scale transport of freshwater and its constituents from terrestrial water storage bodies across and along continental shelves, as well as the impacts on some key biological/biogeochemical properties of coastal waters.
    Description: Ocean Research Coordination Network and the National Science Foundation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Working Paper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Lombard, F., Boss, E., Waite, A. M., Vogt, M., Uitz, J., Stemmann, L., Sosik, H. M., Schulz, J., Romagnan, J., Picheral, M., Pearlman, J., Ohman, M. D., Niehoff, B., Moeller, K. M., Miloslavich, P., Lara-Lpez, A., Kudela, R., Lopes, R. M., Kiko, R., Karp-Boss, L., Jaffe, J. S., Iversen, M. H., Frisson, J., Fennel, K., Hauss, H., Guidi, L., Gorsky, G., Giering, S. L. C., Gaube, P., Gallager, S., Dubelaar, G., Cowen, R. K., Carlotti, F., Briseno-Avena, C., Berline, L., Benoit-Bird, K., Bax, N., Batten, S., Ayata, S. D., Artigas, L. F., & Appeltans, W. Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019):196, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00196.
    Description: In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general—and plankton in particular—in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical and acoustical methods as well as analysis using particle counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next 10 years to move toward our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there, ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries and carbon sequestration.
    Description: Much of this manuscript flows from discussions of the authors with the members of SCOR working groups 150 (TOMCAT) and 154 (P-OBS) as well as discussions with the greater community in various GOOS workshops. We also thank Mike Sieracki, Cabell Davis, Daniele Iudicone, Eric Karsenti, Sebastien Colin, Colomban de Vargas, Ulf Riebesell, Fabrice Not, David Checkley, George Jackson, Cédric Guigand, Ed Urban, Frank Muller-Karger, Sanae Chiba and Daniel Dunn, who contributed to the initial abstracts to OceanObs'19. FL is supported by the Institut Universitaire de France. EB is supported by the NASA biology and biogeochemistry program. RKi and HH were supported by the German Science Foundation through the Collaborative Research Center 754 ‘Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean’. SDA acknowledges the CNRS for her sabbatical year as visiting researcher at ISYEB on the use of genomics and next generation sequencing for plankton studies. HS acknowledges support from the Simons Foundation, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through the Cooperative Institute for the North Atlantic Region. FL and EB contribution was also inspired by their years of work within the Tara Expeditions initiative.
    Keywords: plankton ; imaging ; OceanObs ; autonomous platforms ; global observing ; EOVs ; ECVs
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-08-19
    Description: In the next decade the pressures on ocean systems and the communities that rely on them will increase as multiple stressors of climate change, food security and human activities start to impact. Our ability to manage and sustain our oceans will depend on the data we collect and the information and knowledge generated. Much of the uptake of this knowledge will be outside the ocean domain, for example by policy makers, local Governments, custodians and other organizations, so it is imperative that we democratize or open the access and use of ocean data. This paper looks at how technologies, scoped by standards, best practice and communities of practice, can be deployed to change the way that ocean data is accessed, utilized, value added and transformed into information and knowledge. The current portal-download model which requires the user to know what data exists, where it is stored, in what format and with what processing, limits the uptake and use of ocean data. Using examples from a range of disciplines, a web services model of data and information flows is presented. A framework is described, including the systems, processes and human components, which delivers a radical rethink about the delivery of knowledge from ocean data. A series of vision statements describe parts of the future vision along with a series of recommendations about how this may be achieved. The paper recommends the development of virtual test-beds for end to end development of new data workflows and knowledge pathways. This supports the continued development, rationalization and uptake of standards, creates a platform around which a community of practice can be developed, promotes cross discipline engagement from ocean science through to ocean policy, allows for the commercial sector, including the informatics sector, to partner in delivering outcomes and provides a focus to leverage long term sustained funding. The next ten years will be �make or break� for many ocean systems. The decadal challenge is to develop the governance and co-operative mechanisms to harness emerging information technology to deliver on the goal of generating the information and knowledge required to sustain oceans into the future.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-09
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Pearlman, J., Bushnell, M., Coppola, L., Karstensen, J., Buttigieg, P. L., Pearlman, F., Simpsons, P., Barbier, M., Muller-Karger, F. E., Munoz-Mas, C., Pissierssens, P., Chandler, C., Hermes, J., Heslop, E., Jenkyns, R., Achterberg, E. P., Bensi, M., Bittig, H. C., Blandin, J., Bosch, J., Bourles, B., Bozzano, R., Buck, J. J. H., Burger, E. F., Cano, D., Cardin, V., Llorens, M. C., Cianca, A., Chen, H., Cusack, C., Delory, E., Garello, R., Giovanetti, G., Harscoat, V., Hartman, S., Heitsenrether, R., Jirka, S., Lara-Lopez, A., Lanteri, N., Leadbetter, A., Manzella, G., Maso, J., McCurdy, A., Moussat, E., Ntoumas, M., Pensieri, S., Petihakis, G., Pinardi, N., Pouliquen, S., Przeslawski, R., Roden, N. P., Silke, J., Tamburri, M. N., Tang, H., Tanhua, T., Telszewski, M., Testor, P., Thomas, J., Waldmann, C., & Whoriskey, F. Evolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, (2019):277, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00277.
    Description: The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet’s ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies for structuring observing systems, sensor deployment and usage, and the generation of data and information products, to ethical and governance aspects when executing ocean observing. To meet the urgent, planet-wide challenges we face, methods across all aspects of ocean observing should be broadly adopted by the ocean community and, where appropriate, should evolve into “Ocean Best Practices.” While many groups have created best practices, they are scattered across the Web or buried in local repositories and many have yet to be digitized. To reduce this fragmentation, we introduce a new open access, permanent, digital repository of best practices documentation (oceanbestpractices.org) that is part of the Ocean Best Practices System (OBPS). The new OBPS provides an opportunity space for the centralized and coordinated improvement of ocean observing methods. The OBPS repository employs user-friendly software to significantly improve discovery and access to methods. The software includes advanced semantic technologies for search capabilities to enhance repository operations. In addition to the repository, the OBPS also includes a peer reviewed journal research topic, a forum for community discussion and a training activity for use of best practices. Together, these components serve to realize a core objective of the OBPS, which is to enable the ocean community to create superior methods for every activity in ocean observing from research to operations to applications that are agreed upon and broadly adopted across communities. Using selected ocean observing examples, we show how the OBPS supports this objective. This paper lays out a future vision of ocean best practices and how OBPS will contribute to improving ocean observing in the decade to come.
    Description: The Ocean Best Practices project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under grant agreement no: 633211 (AtlantOS), no. 730960 (SeaDataCloud) and no: 654310 (ODIP). Funding was also received from the NSF OceanObs Research Coordination Network under NSF grant 1143683. The Best Practices Handbook for fixed observatories has been funded by the FixO3 project financed by the European Commission through the Seventh Framework Programme for Research, grant agreement no. 312463. The Harmful Algal Blooms Forecast Report was funded by the Interreg Atlantic Area Operational Programme Project PRIMROSE (Grant Agreement No. EAPA_182/2016), and the AtlantOS project (see above). PB acknowledges funding from the Helmholtz Programme Frontiers in Arctic Marine Monitoring (FRAM) conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut. JM acknowledges fundng from the WeObserve project under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (grant agreement no. 776740). MTe acknowledges support from the US National Science Foundation grant OCE-1840868 to the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR, US) FM-K acknowledges support by NSF Grant 1728913 ‘OceanObS Research Coordination Network’. Funding was also provided by NASA grant NNX14AP62A ‘National Marine Sanctuaries as Sentinel Sites for a Demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON)’ funded under the National Ocean Partnership Program (NOPP RFP NOAA-NOS-IOOS-2014-2003803 in partnership between NOAA, BOEM, and NASA), and the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office.
    Keywords: best practices ; sustainability ; interoperability ; digital repository ; peer review ; ocean observing ; ontologies ; methodologies
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Careful definition and illustrative case studies are fundamental work in developing a Blue Economy. As blue research expands with the world increasingly understanding its importance, policy makers and research institutions worldwide concerned with ocean and coastal regions are demanding further and improved analysis of the Blue Economy. Particularly, in terms of the management connotation, data access, monitoring, and product development, countries are making decisions according to their own needs. As a consequence of this lack of consensus, further dialogue including this cases analysis of the blue economy is even more necessary. This paper consists of four chapters: (I) Understanding the concept of Blue Economy, (II) Defining Blue economy theoretical cases, (III) Introducing Blue economy application cases and (IV) Providing an outlook for the future. Chapters (II) and (III) summarizes all the case studies into nine aspects, each aiming to represent different aspects of the blue economy. This paper is a result of knowledge and experience collected from across the global ocean observing community, and is only made possible with encouragement, support and help of all members. Despite the blue economy being a relatively new concept, we have demonstrated our promising exploration in a number of areas. We put forward proposals for the development of the blue economy, including shouldering global responsibilities to protect marine ecological environment, strengthening international communication and sharing development achievements, and promoting the establishment of global blue partnerships. However, there is clearly much room for further development in terms of the scope and depth of our collective understanding and analysis.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: In this paper we review on the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles, in general, and plankton, in particular, in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-micron to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical, acoustical methods and analysis using particles counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next ten years to move towards our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries, and carbon sequestration.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-08
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-02-28
    Description: Report summarizing the relevant best practices available in the GEOSS (AtlantOS) best practices registry
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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