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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: For the first time in research program and species diversity the white legged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was introduced in Iran in 2005 by Iranian Fisheries Research Organization. In two recent years two projects was carried out successfully in Hele Research Station and according of these projects study of growth, survival rate and final harvesting of Litopenaeus vannamei impact of 25, 35 and 50 (per/m^2) stocking densities was done .Nine 0.4 ha earthen ponds were stocked from 26 June 2006 to 11 November 2006 and the rate of stocking was 100000,140000 and 200000 Pl in 25, 35 and 50 per /m^2 respectively. We also carried out daily test of pH, temperature and dissolve oxygen two times per day but transparency, depth and salinity one time per day. The mean weight in 120 days was 17/84±2/6, 16/03±1/9 and14/09±2/3 grams in 25, 35 and 50 per /m^2 respectively and highest weight was seen in 25 density. Results demonstrated that there was a significant relation (P〈0.05) between mean weight. The yield were 1745, 2055 and 2425 kg/pond although 4/3, 5/1 and 6 ton/ha in 25, 35 and 50 per /m^3 respectively. The maximum and minimum survival rate 97/96 and 88/46 was seen in 25 and 50 per/m^2. The minimum FCR 1.43 was seen in 25 per /m^2. For economical calculating just by using the cost of larva and feeding indicates that the highest benefit percentage was seen in 25 density. The average of salinity, pH, temperature and dissolve oxygen were 36.1-37 ppt, 8.1, 30.2-30.6 degrees centigrade and 5.9- 6.4 mg/l.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Marine polychaete worms living in different beds from coastal areas, so different cultures can be different effects on their development. The evaluation of this research initially, marine polychaete worms were collected in low tidal sea areas from Gulf Persian coast in Bushehr. During several stages of sampling do more than 2000 pieces of worm were taken and then transferred to Bandarga Shrimp Research Station (Iran Shrimp Research Center). So based on an observation the desired species identification (Perinereis nuntia). Then 400 pieces worm selected and transferred to tanks maintain immature worm (fiberglass tanks with dimensions of 2×2×0.5 m with 15 cm sand on floor). The results showed that even the worms (P. nuntia) in vitro reached sexual maturity able to spawn in captivity conditions and were absolute fecundity of 16010 ± 17630 eggs. After incubation eggs, larval culture into the plastic tank with 70 cm diameter, larval (1.5 to 2 mm) were introduced with density 2000 (pieces/m^2). In this research used to three different beds (tidal, filled with water all of time and wet bed) with three different food types (food shrimp, seaweed and vegetable waste), so there were 9 experimental treatments. All experimental treatments harvested and estimate production in each of them after 270 days. The seaweed tidal treatment with amount of 21.17 g/m^2 had best results and the all of wet treatments with 0 g/m^2 was the lowest production. Compare of beds showed that the tidal treatments have significant difference with other beds in growth factors (e.g. mean weight, survival percentage and total production) (P〈0.05). And for effect of food kind on growth factors, the result of difference foods in tidal treatment were analyzed. According this mater any treatments have no significant difference together in growth factors (e.g. mean weight, survival percentage and total production) (P〉0.05).
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-09-13
    Description: Nowadays, the use of live food enrichment is very common in aquaculture and as a practical method introduced. Artemia a potential food source and quality is suitable, it will have used for feeding fish and crustaceans (shrimp). In this study, Artemia enriched with unsaturated fatty acids used for increase the sexual maturity of the white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Thus, the young brood stocks transferred to Bandarga Research station. In order to achieve optimal weight, Brood stocks were feeding by food concentrate and food frozen fresh. In this study such as 3 treatments each with 3 replicates, which brood stocks were stocking in the fiberglass thank with density 2 to 3 (pieces/m^2). They were feeding with meals different including 1) squid , pen shale and marine polychaeta worm (Perinereis nuntia), 2) squid , pen shale and Artemia biomass "fransiscan", 3) squid , pen shale and Artemia biomass enriched with unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) SPARI SELCO solution after were eye ablation. The results showed that sexual maturity increased in the brood stocks fed with Artemia enriched which with significantly higher brood stocks fed with Artemia biomass and the marine worm (P 〈0.05) whereas significant difference was not found in the rate of sexual maturity brood stocks fed with Artemia biomass and marine worm (P〉 0.05). The other hand, histological studies showed that brood stocks fed with Artemia enriched than other two treatments contain were many mature follicles ready for ovulation. However, there was more absolute fecundity in the brood stocks fed with Artemia enriched, but don't found any significant differences in competition with other two treatments (P〉0.05). In addition, during this period, measured and recorded all factors physicochemical water and environment daily. Following this study showed that if the Artemia enriched as part of the diet can both caused eliminate unsaturated fatty acid deficiency diet and improved ovarian development and increase sexual maturity brood stocks female in a short interval. Finally, the results analyzed with statistical software spss 9.0, one way ANOVA and Tukey test.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: Certain diseases such as bacterial , viruses, parasirtic ones Protozoa parasites Could severe mortalities in farmed shrimp last decades. Two hundred and seventy Fenneropenaeus indicus with the weight of 10± 1.09 were selected, transferred to Iran Shrimp Center and distributed to the treatmentsand controls (3 groups). The objective of our study was to describe the signs, prevalence, and intensity of Hemocytosis, a new disease in shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus. The experimental design included three groups, one treatment as infected shrimp or group B and 2 controls with non-infected but exposure to White Spot Syndrom Virus (WSSV) shrimp as group A and non-infected non- exposure to WSSV shrimp as group C in triplicate. The results revealed that Hemocytosis associated with a decrease in hyalinocytes and large-granulocytes (less than 8%) and a considerable increase in semi-granulocytes in group A and B in contrast to group C that Hyalinocyte increased. This infection made the shrimp susceptible to WSSV disease. It is believed that Hemocytosis causes a condition which can result in a rapid mortality among susceptible species, F. indicus when exposure to WSSV is occurred.
    Keywords: Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-27
    Description: We investigated effects of water quality on growth of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in Heleh region of Bushehr in the south of Iran. Physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH and clarity were investigated in three 0.5ha shrimp ponds. Nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and total phosphate), magnesium and sulphate as water quality factors were also investigated. Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), a significant correlation (P〈0.05) and inverse relationship were detected between water temperature and salinity with increase in length and weight of the shrimps. The morning pH values had no relationship with length and weight increase in the shrimps (P〉0.05) while the afternoon pH values had negative significant correlation with the growth factors (P〈0.05). Dissolved oxygen had positive significant correlation with the studied growth factors (P〈0.05). Also, the total phosphate had negative significant correlation with length and weight growth of the shrimps (P〈0.05) while nitrate had positive significant correlation with those growth factors (P〈0.05). No significant correlation was found between the growth factors and other nutrients (P〉0.05).
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: In this study two species of algae, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina boergeseni that found plenteously in Persian Gulf and Bushehr coast, were collected and hot water extracts of them were lyophilized. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g), after two weeks adaptation in Shoghab research station were immersed in seawater (39 ppt and 25±1 ○C) containing hot-water extract of each brown algae, S.glaucescens and P.boergeseni, at 100, 300 and 500 mg/l concentration, Survival rate and immunological parameters (total haemocyte count (THC), total plasma protein (TPP), Phagocytic activity, bacterial clearance efficiency and bactericidal activity) were examined. In addition effect of dietary administration of beta 1, 3 1, 6 glucan on prevention of White Spot Disease and immunological parameters of shrimp were investigated. According to results, immersion in seawater containing 300 and 500 mg/l concentration of algal hot-water extract after 2 and 3 hours or oral administration of beta 1,3 1,6 glucan at level of 10 g/kg diet for 14 days significantly enhanced THC, TPP, Phagocytic activity, bacterial clearance efficiency and bactericidal activity. Immersion in seawater containing 100, 300 and 500 mg/l hot-water extract of S.glaucescens after 3 hours, improved the survival rate of WSSV-infected F. indicus.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-10-05
    Description: The study of effect white spot syndrome virus(WSSV) attenuated vaccine that produced with gamma radiation on shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei carried out by imprinted 14000 PL from Kolahi hatchery in Hormozgan province. The shrimp divided to 3 groups as mentioned in table 2-1. The first group exposed to WSSV vaccine. The second group exposed to WSSV vaccine and then exposed to WSSV and the third did not exposed to vaccine and WSSV and named control positive. The experiment conducted 40 days and the shrimp cultured in standard trail. The result showed the shrimp exposed to vaccine and then exposed to WSSV has 76% and 61% higher survival rate after 35 days and 45 days respectively. The mortality rate also exhibited24% and 39% in both group respectively. The mean value of total hemocyte count and total protein plasma measuring with ANNOVA and LSD examination in group vaccinated and without vaccinate in exposing and injecting group showed no statistical differentiation (P〉0.05) while the total heamocyte count and total protein plasma showed statistical differentiation (P.〈0.05) between both groups. The result from histopathological examinations showed the cowdry type a inclusion bodies in all organ and tissue exhibited and the group vaccinated showed lower inclusion bodies with comparing without vaccinated.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-10-14
    Description: Aquaculture is the fastest growing food industry in the world. Shrimp culture industry is also part of it, unfortunately, like other marine animal culture economic losses caused by the disease has been one of the major challenges of this industry. The major cause of mortality in shrimp hatcheries and rearing centers is related to water quality and the presence of pathogenic bacteria and parasites. These are common opportunistic microorganisms in the hatchery, rearing centers, flora and living food but poor conditions of culture are caused diseases. Since the development of aquaculture in the countries need health management, one of the important additional rings in the shrimp strategic plan is specific pathogen free shrimp production, which has been addressed in this plan. Specific pathogen free shrimp define as the shrimps which are free of the specific pathogens listed in world organization for animal health (OIE). These factors should be conclusively diagnosed and can be isolated from shrimp hatcheries and culture system. Therefore in this project screening and surveillance of shrimp in several generations according to the list of OIE were done and they were monitored for of bacterial pathogens (Necrosis Hepatopancreas Bacteria) and parasites (Microsporidian and Gregarines). At total 756 pieces of shrimp, 6 sample of dry food and 97 samples of live foods were controlled and tested. 1.35 percent of live foods were positive for NHPB and 5.6 percent of pre broodstocks have epicommensal and microsporidia which were disposed in quarantine phase. Because of biosecurity and surveillance system establishment, there were no bacterial or parasitic isolation or diagnosis during SPF shrimp production.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-12
    Description: Shrimp aquaculture as one of the most important activities in the world and Iran is expanding. Bacteria and fungi of the most common infectious agents causing diseases are in the hatchery and shrimp. The most important bacteria causing diseases in the hatcheries and shrimp Farms, bacteria are Vibrionaceae family. The fungi can be identified as Fusarium, Mucor, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and yeast. Utilized of water supply system in this project for breeding and reproduction of shrimp is a controlled system. The purpose of this action, control and stabilization of water quality during the breeding period and in all sectors. This system act as a part of biological security. Incoming water before the utilization was monitored for the total bacteria count, fungi and as well as Vibrionaceae family, each 15 days. If contamination is too predictable, additional tests and necessary treatments were carried out to improve the quality of the water. The water, after use in the system and after passing through the filtration system, was guided out.
    Keywords: Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-13
    Description: The aim of this study was to determine the genetic parameters, genetic differentiation and relative relationship between different generations of specific pathogenic free of L.vannamei via molecular methods. Tissue samples of shrimp were randomly get caught from the different area. Genetic parameters were evaluated by 12 special primers of L.vannamei via microsatellite assay. In this study, two population of Molokaei and High health were identified as shrimp broodstocks of specific disease free (SPF) zero generation. Breeding among shrimp (males and females) were through inbreeding and crossbreeding. Three various stocks were produced: H♂ × M♀, M♂ × H♀ and H♀ × H♂. Genetic differences and relative relationship between different generations of specific pathogenic free shrimp were to evaluate by evaluation of 16S rRNA and d-loop region mitochondrial of different generations, respectively. The results showed that significant differences were observed among genetic distance of different populations of L.vannamei farmed (0.615). There were o.o78 Fst value of M.H and H.M stokes that it was a significant difference (P 〈0.001). The analysis of d-loop region of mitochondrial genomes of different generations shrimp was observed 997 positions with 3-6 and 766-799 of haplotype and monomorphic, respectively. Despite haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of all generations SPF shrimp were 0.877 and 0.12, respectively. While, Base on result of 16S rRNA indicated that of 486 sites have been identified 484 sites were conserved. Also, monomorphic sites ranged between 482-486 sites and was consists 2 polymorphic sites and 2 transitional sites. The number haplotypes, haplotypes diversity, nucleotide diversity revealed in this region were 2, 0.356±0.159 and 0.00147, respectively. Regarding the results of in this study can be concluded that lack of arriving new broodstocks from outside the country and was mating between adult males and females relative (full-sib) addition to small effective population size there was both genetic drift and number of haplotypes was gradually reduced from zero generation to second generation. Hence, due to the high close relationship between different generations shrimp evaluation of d-loop and 16S rRNA regions of the mitochondrial genome were little genetic difference between them.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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