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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: actin ; bradykinin ; filamin ; phosphatase ; kinase ; permeability ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeletal proteins are one of the earliest primary targets of second messenger cascades generated in response to inflammatory agonists. Actin binding proteins, by modulating actin gelation-solation state and membrane-cytoskeleton interactions, in part regulate cell motility and cell-cell apposition. This in turn can also modulate interendothelial junctional diameter and permeability. Nonmuscle filamin (ABP-280), a dimeric actincrosslinking protein, promotes orthogonal branching of F-actin and links microfilaments to membrane glycoproteins. In the present study, immunoblot analysis demonstrates that filamin protein levels are low in sparse EC cultures, increase once cell-cell contact is initiated and then decrease slightly at post-confluency. Both bradykinin and ionomycin cause filamin redistribution from the peripheral cell border to the cytosol of confluent EC. Forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, blocks filamin translocation. Bradykinin activation of EC is not accompanied by significant proteolytic cleavage of filamin. Instead, intact filamin is recycled back to the membrane within 5-10 min of bradykinin stimulation. Inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (KT-5926 and KN-62) attenuate bradykinin-induced filamin translocation. H-89, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, causes translocation of filamin in unstimulated cells. Calyculin A, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases, also causes translocation of filamin in the absence of an inflammatory agent. ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase and phorbol myristate acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, do not cause filamin movement into the cytosol, indicating that these pathways do not modulate the translocation. Pharmacological data suggest that filamin translocation is initiated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase whereas the cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway prevents translocation. Inflammatory agents therefore may increase vascular junctional permeability by increasing cytoplasmic calcium, which disassembles the microfilament dense peripheral band by releasing filamin from F-actin. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: actin ; permeability ; reoxygenation ; signal transduction ; cytoskeletal rearrangement ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Hypoxia/reoxygenation injury to cultured endothelial cells results in cytoskeletal rearrangement and second messenger activation related to increased monolayer junctional permeability. Cytoskeletal rearrangement by reactive oxygen species may be related to specific activation of the phospholipase D (PLD) pathway. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers are exposed to H2O2 (100 μM) or metabolites of the PLD pathway for 1-60 min. Changes in cAMP levels, Ca2+ levels, PIP2 production, filamin distribution, and intercellular gap formation are then quantitated. H2O2-induced filamin translocation from the membrane to the cytosol occurs after 1-min H2O2 treatment, while intercellular gap formation significantly increases after 15 min. H2O2 and phosphatidic acid exposure rapidly decrease intracellular cAMP levels, while increasing PIP2 levels in a Ca2+-independent manner. H2O2-induced cAMP decreases are prevented by inhibiting phospholipase D. H2O2-induced cytoskeletal changes are prevented by inhibiting phospholipase D, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate kinase, phosphoinositide turnover, or by adding a synthetic peptide that binds PIP2. These data indicate that metabolites produced downstream of H2O2-induced PLD activation may mediate filamin redistribution and F-actin rearrangement. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:511-524, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Protein stain ; Electroblotting ; Metal chelate ; Pyrogallol red ; Molybdenum ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Certain metal complexes selectively interact with proteins immobilized on solid-phase membrane supports to form brightly colored products. The metal chelates form protein-dye complexes in the presence of metal ions at acidic pH but are eluted from the proteins by immersing membranes in a solution of basic pH that contains other chelating agents. The reversible nature of the protein staining procedure allows for subsequent biochemical analyses, such as immunoblotting, N-terminal and internal protein sequencing. Among the metal complexes evaluated to date, the triazine dye-ferrous complexes (ferene S, ferrozine) and the ferrocyanide-ferric complexes provide the most sensitive detection of proteins immobilized on membranes. While the pyrogallol redmolybdate complex is commonly used in solution-based total protein assays, its utility as a reversible stain for proteins immobilized on membranes has not been reported. Pyrogallol red-molybdate complexes readily stain proteins on nitrocellulose and polyvinyl difluoride membranes with similar sensitivity as ferrozine-ferrous complexes. Analysis of charge-fractionated carrier ampholytes and synthetic polymers of different L-amino acids indicate that binding is prominently via protonated α and ε-amino side chains. Carbamylation of amino groups in bovine serum albumin substantially diminishes pyrogallol red-molybdate binding to the protein. The stain is reversible, resistant to chemical interference, and compatible with immunoblotting.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ; Reproducibility ; Carrier ampholytes ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reproducibility of complex protein patterns in two-dimensional (2-D) gels run with carrier ampholytes in the first dimension has been investigated. Two different laboratories collaborated in the study and 18 or 19 gels were run in each laboratory for comparison. The electrophoresis chemicals, running devices, and samples were standardized in both labs. The resulting 37 gels were scanned with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and spots were located, counted, quantified, and matched using a commercially available image analysis system. Subsequently, the reproducibility of spot position was determined. To perform the statistical analysis, the test gels were initially each matched to a master references gel. Next, three sets of 12 gels (the image analysis software database could analyze only 12 gels at a time) were analyzed and the isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mr) positional variation of all the spots that matched across the gels in each set was determined. The resulting statistical analysis indicates very high reproducibility of the carrier ampholyte technique.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Twenty area processing filters and filter combinations were evaluated in an effort to optimize presentation of two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles to the Laplacian spot finder for maximal spot detection sensitivity. Images of electrophoresis gels were obtained by digitizing polyacrylamide gels at 1024 × 1024 picture elements (pixels) resolution with 256 grey scale levels using the charge coupled device (CCD) camera of the Millipore Bio Image 110S computerized imaging system. The images were imported into an Apple Macintosh microcomputer and selectively enhanced by applying various area processing filters. Previously described least squares fit, low-pass, Gaussian and median filters were used to reduce noise in the digitized images. These filters differ in that during the summation process the least squares template weighs the immediately adjacent pixels more heavily than the Gaussian template. The low-pass filters weigh all neighboring pixels equally. Median filters replace the pixel of interest with the middle (median) value of the pixel neighborhood. An analysis of convolution filter sizes indicated that a 7 × 7 matrix was optimal for 22 cm × 22 cm gels. When using the median area processing procedure, however, the 3 × 3 filter was found to be superior to the 7 × 7 filter. The 7 × 7 least squares filter significantly improved detection of low abundance polypeptides while having only minimal effects on the high abundance polypeptides. The 7 × 7 Gaussian and 3 × 3 median filters also improved detection of low abundance polypeptides but reduced the integrated areas of the high abundance polypeptides and thus their integrated optical densities as well. The 7 × 7 least squares and the 3 × 3 median filters effectively increased spot detection, and reduced noise with minimal alteration in the modal distribution of spot areas and integrated optical densities in the image. They also preserved image quality (minimal blurring). The practical consequence of using the 7 × 7 least squares, 3 × 3 median or 7 × 7 Gaussian filters is an 8-fold increase in sensitivity due to noise reduction, resulting in the detection of 60-65% more polypeptides in a typical silver stained gel.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Actin ; Pericyte ; Filamin ; Nonmuscle filamin ; ABP-280 ; Esterase ; Endothelium ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two principal forms of the actin binding protein, filamin, are expressed in mammalian cells: nonmuscle and muscle isotypes (FLN-1 and FLN-2). A protein that copurifies with an α-naphthyl acetate hydrolyzing esterase from human omentum microvessel endothelial cells (EC) is isolated by nondenaturing electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroblotting. The purified protein is subjected to in situ trypsin cleavage, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and automated Edman degradation. Six peptide fragments from the protein are identified to have 60 - 66% identity with nonmuscle filamin (ABP-280). Two of these peptides are 100% identical to a previously sequenced human muscle filamin fragment. Polyclonal antibody is produced using a 16-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to a structural β-sheet region of muscle filamin. Compared with a variety of vascular cells evaluated, retinal pericytes express an abundance of both muscle and non-muscle filamin isotypes. Pericytes contain at least 10 times more muscle filamin than human umbilical vein EC and at least three times the amount expressed in human omentum micro-vessel and bovine pulmonary artery EC. Differential detergent fractionation indicates that both filamin isotypes are primarily localized in the cytosol and membrane/organelle fractions of pericytes. Another actin crosslinking protein, α-actinin, is primarily found in the cytosol and cytoskeletal fractions. The dynamic regulation of actin microfilament organization in pericytes may be controlled in part by the two filamin isotypes, which in turn may contribute to pericyte contractility.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 127 major polypeptides obtained from the purified plasma membrane of Dictyostelium discoideum were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and a microcomputer-based videodensitometer. Plasma membrane proteins were analyzed at four discrete stages of concanavalin A induced cell surface capping; (i) the cell surface in the absence of ligand (unbound), (ii) the surface immediately after ligand binding (bound), (iii) the cell surface after receptors had patched (patched) and (iv) the cell surface after receptors had capped (capped). Plasma membranes were obtained at various stages of capping by using a colloidal silica density perturbation technique which immediately immobilized the proteins, preserving their lateral distribution in the bilayer during the isolation. Proteins were characterized with respect to post-translational modification changes resulting from the capping process as well as changes in their association with the plasma membrane fraction. Posttranslational changes of plasma membrane proteins, such as phosphorylation, methylation and proteolytic cleavage, were not observed during the four stages of capping. Myosin heavy chain phosphorylation, however, decreased almost twofold during patching and capping. Actin, which is known to colocalize directly underneath capped receptors did not appear to be recruited to the cap from the cytoplasm.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Polypeptides of bovine aortic, pulmonary artery, and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, as well as vascular smooth muscle cells and retinal pericytes were evaluated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The principal cytoskeletal proteins in all of these cell types were actin, vimentin, tropomyosin, and tubulin. Cultured pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells also expressed 12 unique polypeptides including a 41 kd acidic type 1 and two isoforms of a 52 kd basic type II simple epithelial cytokeratin. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell expression of the simple epithelial cytokeratins was maintained in culture in the presence or absence of retinal-derived growth factor, and regardless of whether cells were cultured on gelatin, fibronectin, collagen I, collagen IV, laminin, basement membrane proteins, or plastic. Cytokeratin expression was maintained through at least 50 population doublings in culture. The expression of cytokeratins was found to be regulated by cell density. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells seeded at 2.5 × 105 cells/cm2 (confluent seeding) expressed 3.5 times more cytokeratins than cells seeded at 1.25 × 104 cells/cm2 (sparse seeding). Vimentin expression was not altered by cell density. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy it was determined that the cytokeratins were distributed cytoplasmically at subconfluent cell densities but that cytokeratin 19 sometimes localized at regions of cell-cell contact after cells reached confluence. Vimentin had a cytoplasmic distribution regardless of cell density. These results suggest that pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells have a distinctive cytoskeleton that may provide them with functionally unique properties when compared with endothelial cells derived from the macrovasculature. In conjunction with conventional endothelial cell markers, the presence of simple epithelial cytokeratins may be an important biochemical criterion for identifying pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the repopulation rate of denuded regions of endothelial cell monolayers and on endothelial cell reorganization into complex vessellike structures was monitored in vitro by using human umbilical vein and bovine aortic endothelial cells. A small (20-40%) but statistically significant enhancement in growth rate of partially denuded endothelial cell monolayers as determined by tritiated thymidine incorporation was observed in the presence of pulsed electromagnetic fields. Morphologically, endothelial cells entering the denuded regions were observed to be elongated, often connecting end to end to form a mycelial or “sprouting” pattern when exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields. This was in contrast to cells outside of the field which had a more cuboidal morphology. Complete disruption of the endothelial cell monolayer by passaging the cells with EDTA trypsin resulted in reorganization of some of the cells into three-dimensional vessellike structures after as little as 5-8 hours in the presence of the pulsed electromagnetic field. This reorganization occurred in the presence of heparin, endothelial cell growth factor, and a competent fibronectin matrix. Vas-cularization for comparable cultures outside of the field did not occur during the time-course of the experiments. Discrete stages of neovascularization were observed in the presence of the field that were qualitatively similar to stages of angiogenesis observed in vivo.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Endothelial cell (EC) motility may contribute to the regulation of microvascular perfusion and/or paracellular permeability. The experiments reported herein demonstrate that bovine pulmonary microvessel EC can reversibly deform a silicone substrate in response to agents known to contract and relax smooth muscle cells. Contracting pulmonary microvessel EC exerted a tension that created wrinkles in the underlying deformable substrate. Relaxation and loss of tension were revealed by the disappearance of these wrinkles without loss of cell adhesion to the substratum. Angiotensin II (Ang II) and bradykinin stimulated pulmonary microvessel EC to contract within 3 to 8 min in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. The peak of contraction at 10 to 20 min was followed by relaxation. Forskolin and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) initiated relaxation of the microvessel EC within 3 to 10 min respectively. Relaxed EC contracted following the addition of Ang II, also within 3 min. Dibutyryl cAMP, dibutyryl cGMP, and the photoactivated internalized “caged” cAMP and cGMP promoted EC relaxation in a manner similar to forskolin and SNP. Increases in the intracellular concentration of inositol triphosphate (IP3) with the photoactivated IP3 complex promoted EC contraction in 2 min with a peak at 7 min. The contraction was followed by relaxation, which occurred at 20-25 min. Neither bovine pulmonary artery nor retinal microvessel EC, used as controls, contracted under these experimental conditions. One could speculate that this unique contractile property of pulmonary microvessel EC as observed in vitro may play a regulatory role in vivo, in local perfusion and/or in intercellular gap regulation.
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