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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: An automated method has been developed for performing navigation assessment on satellite-based Earth sensor data. The method utilizes islands as targets which can be readily located in the sensor data and identified with reference locations. The essential elements are an algorithm for classifying the sensor data according to source, a reference catalog of island locations, and a robust pattern-matching algorithm for island identification. The algorithms were developed and tested for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), an ocean color sensor. This method will allow navigation error statistics to be automatically generated for large numbers of points, supporting analysis over large spatial and temporal ranges.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Image Registration Workshop Proceedings; 57-80; NASA/CP-1998-206853
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: This chapter summarizes ocean color science data product requirements for the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud,ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission's Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) and observatory. NASA HQ delivered Level-1 science data product requirements to the PACE Project, which encompass data products to be produced and their associated uncertainties. These products and uncertainties ultimately determine the spectral nature of OCI and the performance requirements assigned to OCI and the observatory. This chapter ultimately serves to provide context for the remainder of this volume, which describes tools developed that allocate these uncertainties into their components, including allowable OCI systematic and random uncertainties, observatory geo location uncertainties, and geophysical model uncertainties.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NASA/TM?2018-219027/ Vol. 6 , GSFC-E-DAA-TN65850
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Hawkeye is an ocean color instrument designed, manufactured and characterized at Cloud land Instruments, CA. It is a push broom instrument that has 8spectral bands similar to SeaWiFS and a spatial resolution of 120 m. Each spectral band has 1800 detectors (pixels) and all 14,000 detectors (pixels) need to be calibrated independently. This paper describes the preliminary design of on-orbit calibration method to correct for the instrument response's temperature sensitivity,scan angle dependency in radiometric sensitivity, relative spectral response (RSR),non linearity, and polarization sensitivity. We will provide a brief description on how each of the calibration parameters are used to address the instrument characteristics and how the calibration parameters are derived from instrument test data and use to retrieve ocean color products.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN65581 , Earth Observing Systems XXIII; 10764; 107640C|SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications; Aug 19, 2018 - Aug 23, 2018; San Diago, CA; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Extending OCI hyperspectral radiance measurements in the ultraviolet to 320 nm on the blue spectrograph enables quantitation of atmospheric total column ozone (O3) for use in ocean color atmospheric correction algorithms. The strong absorption by atmospheric ozone below 340 nm enables the quantification of total column ozone. Other applications are possible but were not investigated due to their exploratory nature and lower priority.The first step in the atmospheric correction processing, which converts top-of-the-atmosphere radiances to water-leaving radiances, is removal of the absorbance by atmospheric trace gases such as water vapor, oxygen, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Details of the atmospheric correction process currently used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) and will be employed for PACE with appropriate modifications, are described by Mobley et al. [2016]. Atmospheric ozone absorbs within the visible to near-infrared spectrum between ~450 nm and 800nm and most appreciably between 530 nm and 650 nm, a spectral region critical for maintaining NASA's chlorophyll-a climate data record and for PACE algorithms planned to characterize phytoplankton community composition and other ocean color products.While satellite-based observations will likely be available during PACE's mission lifetime, the difference in acquisition time with PACE, the coarseness in their spatial resolution, and differences in viewing geometries will introduce significant levels of uncertainties in PACE ocean color data products.
    Keywords: General
    Type: NASA/TM?2018-219027/ Vol. 7 , GSFC-E-DAA-TN65853
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-04-04
    Description: Observations of the Moon provide a primary technique for the on-orbit cross calibration of Earth remote sensing instruments. Monthly lunar observations are major components of the on-orbit calibration strategies of SeaWiFS and MODIS. SeaWiFS has collected more than 132 low phase angle and 59 high phase angle lunar observations over 12 years, Terra MODIS has collected more than 82 scheduled and 297 unscheduled lunar observations over 9 years, and Aqua MODIS has collected more than 61 scheduled and 171 unscheduled lunar observations over 7 years. The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group s Calibration and Validation Team and the NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team use the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) photometric model of the Moon to compare these time series of lunar observations over time and varying observing geometries. The cross calibration results show that Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS agree, band-to-band, at the 1-3% level, while SeaWiFS and either MODIS instrument agree at the 3-8% level. The combined uncertainties of these comparisons are 1.3% for Terra and Aqua MODIS, 1.4% for SeaWiFS and Terra MODIS, and 1.3% for SeaWiFS and Aqua MODIS. Any residual phase dependence in the ROLO model, based on these observations, is less than 1.7% over the phase angle range of -80deg to -6deg and +5deg to +82deg . The lunar cross calibration of SeaWiFS, Terra MODIS, and Aqua MODIS is consistent with the vicarious calibration of ocean color products for these instruments, with the vicarious gains mitigating the calibration biases for the ocean color bands.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We report on the lunar and solar measurements used to determine the changes in the radiometric sensitivity of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Radiometric sensitivity is defined as the output from the instrument (or from one of the instrument bands) per unit spectral radiance at the instrument's input aperture. Knowledge of the long-term repeatability of the SeaWiFS measurements is crucial to maintaining the quality of the ocean scenes derived from measurements by the instrument. For SeaWiFS bands 1 through 6 (412 nm through 670 rim), the change in radiometric sensitivity is less than 0.2% for the period from November 1997 through November 1998. For band 7 (765 nm), the change is about 1.5%, and for band 8 (865 nm) about 5%. The rates of change of bands 7 and 8, which were linear with time for the first eight months of lunar measurements, are now slowing. The scatter in the data points about the trend lines in this analysis is less than 0.3% for all eight SeaWiFS bands. These results are based on monthly measurements of the moon. Daily solar measurements using an onboard diffuser show that the radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands have changed smoothly during the time intervals between lunar measurements. Since SeaWiFS measurements have continued past November 1998, the results presented here are considered as a snapshot of the instrument performance as of that date.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: Applied Optics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: This chapter summarizes the mission architecture for the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission, ranging from its scientific rationale to the history of its realized conception to itspresent-day organization and management. This volume in the PACE Technical Report series focuses ontrade studies that informed the formulation of the mission in its pre-Phase A (2014-2016; pre-formulation:define a viable and affordable concept) and Phase A (2016-2017; concept and technology development).With that in mind, this chapter serves to introduce the mission by providing: a brief summary of thescience drivers for the mission; a history of the direction of the mission to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); a synopsis of the mission's and instruments' management and development structures; and a brief description of the primary components and elements that form the foundation ofthe mission, encompassing the major mission segments (space, ground, and science data processing) and their roles in integration, testing, and operations.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: NASA/TM-2018-219027/Vol. 5 , GSFC-E-DAA-TN65849
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN6396
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The NASA VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) has the task of evaluating Suomi NPP VIIRS ocean color data for the continuity of the NASA ocean color climate data records. The generation of science quality ocean color data products requires an instrument calibration that is stable over time. Since the VIIRS NIR Degradation Anomaly directly impacts the bands used for atmospheric correction of the ocean color data (Bands M6 and M7), the VOST has adapted the VIIRS on-orbit calibration approach to meet the ocean science requirements. The solar diffuser calibration time series and the solar diffuser stability monitor time series have been used to derive changes in the instrument response and diffuser reflectance over time for bands M1-M11.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN6422
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Ocean color climate data records require water-leaving radiances with 5% absolute and 1% relative accuracies as input. Because of the amplification of any sensor calibration errors by the atmospheric correction, the 1% relative accuracy requirement translates into a 0.1% long-term radiometric stability requirement for top-of-the atmosphere radiances. The rigorous on-orbit calibration program developed and implemented for SeaWiFS by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) Calibration and Validation Team (CVT) has allowed the CVT to maintain the stability of the radiometric calibration of SeaWiFS at 0.13% or better over the mission. The uncertainties in the resulting calibrated top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiances can be addressed in terms of accuracy (biases in the measurements), precision (scatter in the measurements), and stability (repeatability of the measurements). The calibration biases of lunar observations relative to the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) photometric model of the Moon are 2-3%. The biases from the vicarious calibration against the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) are 1-2%. The precision of the calibration derived from the solar calibration signal-tonoise ratios are 0.16%, from the lunar residuals are 0.13%, and from the vicarious gains are 0.10%. The long-term stability of the TOA radiances, derived from the lunar time series, is 0.13%. The stability of the vicariouslycalibrated TOA radiances, incorporating the uncertainties in the MOBY measurements and the atmospheric correction, is 0.30%. These results allow the OBPG to produce climate data records from the SeaWiFS ocean color data.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: GSFC.CP.4904.2011
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