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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Observations made from 1972 to 1976 with the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer on board the Nimbus 5 Satellite provide sequential synoptic information of the Arctic sea ice cover. This 4 year data set was used to construct a fairly continuous series of 3 day average 19-GHz passive microwave images which has become a valuable source of polar information, yielding many anticipated and unanticipated discoveries of the sea ice canopy observed in its entirety through the clouds and during the polar night. Interpretation of the passive microwave satellite data set was performed by comparing selected sequential images with correspondin microwave profiles and images acquired by the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory and with various in situ microwave and physical observations.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: Geological Survey US Geological Survey Polar Res. Symp.; p 40
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The 3-day images from the Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer were combined to form monthly average maps and contour plots. These show clearly the yearly cycle from minimum ice extent in February to maximum ice extent from August to September and the spatial distribution of ice 15 to 50 percent concentrated, 50 to 85 percent concentrated, and 85 to 100 percent concentrated. The yearly cycle of the monthly extent of ice is plotted for each of the four years (1973-76). The total 4-year range in monthly mean concentrations (over the 30 km x 30 km grid elements with ice present) is 50 to 80 percent, and the yearly cycle is far less distinct than that for the ice areas.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: International Geophysical Year World Data Center A Snow Watch 1980; p 79-86
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: AGU San Francisco, California, USA.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: AAS Division of Planetary Sciences (DPS) Meeting 2003; Monterey, CA; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A summary data set for four years (mid 70's) of Arctic sea ice conditions is available on magnetic tape. The data include monthly and yearly averaged Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) brightness temperatures, an ice concentration parameter derived from the brightness temperatures, monthly climatological surface air temperatures, and monthly climatological sea level pressures. All data matrices are applied to 293 by 293 grids that cover a polar stereographic map enclosing the 50 deg N latitude circle. The grid size varies from about 32 X 32 km at the poles to about 28 X 28 km at 50 deg N. The ice concentration parameter is calculated assuming that the field of view contains only open water and first-year ice with an ice emissivity of 0.92. To account for the presence of multiyear ice, a nomogram is provided relating the ice concentration parameter, the total ice concentration, and the fraction of the ice cover which is multiyear ice.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NAS 1.15:87825 , NASA-TM-87825
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  • 7
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objectives were to determine and analyze the annual cycle of sea ice extents in the Arctic Ocean and peripheral seas and bays over the period 1973 to 1986, looking in particular for any long term trends; to examine the relationship between local sea ice covers and the surrounding atmosphere and ocean; and to examine sea ice as a potential early indicator of climate change. The work involves creating regional and hemispheric time series of sea ice variables from satellite passive microwave data and analyzing these through various intercomparisons amongst themselves and with oceanographic and atmospheric fields.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Laboratory for Oceans; p 123-125
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-SP-459 , LC-83-600167 , NAS 1.21:459
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ocean heat flux sensitivity was studied on a numerical model of sea ice covering the Weddell Sea region of the southern ocean. The model is driven by mean monthly climatological atmospheric variables. For each model run, the ocean heat flux is uniform in both space and time. Ocean heat fluxes below 20 W m to the minus 2 power do not provide sufficient energy to allow the ice to melt to its summertime thicknesses and concentrations by the end of the 14 month simulation, whereas ocean heat fluxes of 30 W m to the minus 2 power and above result in too much ice melt, producing the almost total disappearance of ice in the Weddell Sea by the end of the 14 months. These results are dependent on the atmospheric forcing fields.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-TM-83877
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ratios R of the monthly averaged wind speeds to the magnitudes of the monthly averaged wind vectors are presented over a 41 x 41 grid covering the southern Ocean and the Antarctic continent. The ratio is found to vary from 1 to over 1000, with an average value of 1.86. These ratios R are relevant for converting from sensible and latent heats calculated with mean monthly data to those calculated with 12 hourly data. The corresponding ratios alpha for wind stress, along with the angle deviations involved, are also presented over the same 41 x 41 grid. The values of alpha generally exceed those for R and average 2.66. Regions in zones of variable wind directions have larger R and alpha ratios, over the ice-covered portions of the southern Ocean averaging 2.74 and 4.35 for R and alpha respectively. Thus adjustments to compensate for the use of mean monthly wind velocities should be stronger for wind stress than for turbulent heats and stronger over ice covered regions than over regions with more persistent wind directions, e.g., those in the belt of mid-latitude westerlies.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-83855
    Format: application/pdf
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