Life and Medical Sciences
Cell & Developmental Biology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
The highly specialized cranial musculature of the toadfish is characterized by the following features: 1Absence of intermandibularis and branchiomandibularis muscles.2Presence of levator premaxillaris muscle.3Very large branchial chamber, the outer wall of which is formed by seven branchiostegal rays connected by a strong fascia provided with muscles (oblique levators and adductors).4Highly developed masticator muscles (adductor mandibularis and pterygoids).5The rectus abdominis, sternohyoid, and hyohyoid muscles are attached by a median aponeurosis to the hyoid and basibranchial elements and directly to the hypobranchial cartilages; this muscle complex depresses the buccal floor in opposition to the geniohyoid.6The pelvic fins are in the jugular position.7Two narrow muscles connect the cleithrum with the fourth ceratobranchial.8The cranial musculature is obviously adapted to a carnivorous habit and particularly for increasing respiratory capacity under asphyxial conditions.
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