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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: Porous Microstructure Analysis (PuMA) software is used to perform simulations of molecular beam scattering experiments of hyperthermal atomic oxygen striking FiberFormr, a carbon preform material used commonly as a precursor in thermal protection systems (TPS). The purpose of this study is to investigate the reactive interaction of fibrous carbon with atomic oxygen in a complex microstructure, which is the primary source of carbon removal at lower temperatures. The detailed micro-structure of FiberFormr obtained from X-ray micro-tomography is used in the PuMA simulations to capture the complexity of the porous and fibrous characteristic of FiberFormr. A finite-rate surface chemistry model recently constructed from the molecular beam scattering experiments on vitreous carbon is applied to each fiber of the FiberFormr material. This model consists of detailed surface reaction mechanisms such as adsorption, desorption, and several types of Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) reactions to characterize the oxygen-carbon interactions at the surface. Comparison between the experimental and PuMA time-of-flight (TOF) distributions of both O and CO show good agreement. It is also found that a significantly higher amount of CO is generated when the beam interacted with FiberFormr, when compared with vitreous carbon. This is postulated to be primarily a result of multiple collisions of oxygen with the fibers, resulting in an higher effective rate of CO production. Multiple collisions with the different fibers, resulting from the porous nature of FiberFormr is also found to thermalize the O atoms, in addition to the adsorption/desorption process. The effect of micro-structure is concluded to be crucial in determining the final composition and energy distributions of the products. Thus, an effective model for the oxygen interaction with FiberFormr, fully accounting for the detailed micro-structure, for use in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and material response codes, is presented.
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN64596 , AIAA SciTech Forum 2019; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The ablative materials used in thermal protection systems (TPS) undergo oxidation during atmospheric entry which leads to an in-depth change in both permeability and porosity. These properties have a significant affect on heat transfer in a TPS during entry. X-ray micro-tomography has provided 3D images capturing the micro-structure of TPS materials. In this study, we use micro-tomography based simulations to create high-fidelity models relating permeability to porosity during oxidation of FiberForm, the carbon fiber preform of the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) often used as a TPS material. The goal of this study is to inform full-scale models and reduce uncertainty in TPS modeling.
    Keywords: Structural Mechanics; Composite Materials
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN46701 , Ablation Workshop; 30-31 Aug. 2017; Bozeman, MT; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: X-ray micro-tomography is used to support the research on materials carried out at NASA Ames Research Center. The technique is applied to a variety of applications, including the ability to characterize heat shield materials for planetary entry, to study the Earth- impacting asteroids, and to improve broadcloths of spacecraft parachutes. From micro-tomography images, relevant morphological and transport properties are determined and validated against experimental data.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance; Chemistry and Materials (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN39049 , International Conference on Tomography of Materials and Structures; 26-30 Jun. 2017; Lund; Sweden
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: This report provides a code-to-code comparison between PATO, a recently developed high fidelity material response code, and FIAT, NASA's legacy code for ablation response modeling. The goal is to demonstrates that FIAT and PATO generate the same results when using the same models. Test cases of increasing complexity are used, from both arc-jet testing and flight experiment. When using the exact same physical models, material properties and boundary conditions, the two codes give results that are within 2% of errors. The minor discrepancy is attributed to the inclusion of the gas phase heat capacity (cp) in the energy equation in PATO, and not in FIAT.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: NASA/CR-2015-218960 , ARC-E-DAA-TN27949
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Carbon preforms used in Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials are 80 to 90% porous, allowing for boundary layer and pyrolysis gases to flow through the porous regions. The bulk material properties such as permeability and hydraulic tortuosity factor affect the transport of the boundary layer gases. The use of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo along with the Klinkenberg permeability formulation allows us to compute the continuum permeability and Knudsen correction factor for flow in the transition regime. In this work, we have computed the permeability for two types of carbon preforms, namely, Morgan Felt and FiberForm, and assessed the effect of orientation on the permeability. Since both the materials are anisotropic, the permeability was found to depend on orientation, wherein, the materials are more permeable in the in-plane orientation than the through-thickness orientation. The through-thickness orientation was also more tortuous compared to the in-plane material orientation. Compared to Morgan Felt, FiberForm is less permeable, in both, through thickness and in-plane directions.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General)
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN50011 , AIAA SciTech 2018; 8-12 Jan. 2018; Kissimmee, FL; United States
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Introduction: NASAs next mission to Mars, the Mars 2020, will use the same heatshield of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) for thermal protection during entry, descent and landing. The heatshield is a tiled system made of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) blocks [1]. PICA is a lightweight carbon fiber/polymeric resin material that offers excellent performances for protecting probes during planetary entry. The Mars Entry Descent and Landing Instrument (MEDLI) suite on MSL offers unique in-flight validation data for models of atmospheric entry and material response. MEDLI recorded, among others, time-resolved in-depth temperature data of PICA using thermocouple sensors assembled in the MEDLI Integrated Sensor Plugs (MISP). The objective of this work is to compare the thermal response of the MSL heatshield to the MISP flight data. In preparation to Mars 2020 post-flight analysis, the predictive material response capability is benchmarked against MEDLI flight data.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN61346 , Ablation Workshop; 17-18 Sep. 2018; Burlington, VT; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Phenolic-Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system material for successful atmospheric entries. The objective of the current work is to compute the effective radiative conductivity of fibrous porous media, such as preforms used to make PICA, to enable the efficient design of materials that can meet the thermal performance goals of forthcoming space exploration missions.
    Keywords: Composite Materials; Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics; Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN46699 , Ablation Workshop; 30-31 Aug. 2017; Bozeman, MT; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The radiative heat transfer inside a low-density carbon fiber insulator is analyzed using a three-dimensional direct simulation model. A robust procedure is presented for the numerical calculation of the geometric configuration factor to compute the radiative energy exchange processes among the small discretized surface areas of the fibrous material. The methodology is applied to a polygonal mesh of a fibrous insulator obtained from three-dimensional microscale imaging of the real material. The anisotropic values of the radiative conductivity are calculated for that geometry. The results yield both directional and thermal dependence of the radiative conductivity.
    Keywords: Composite Materials; Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN31216 , International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (e-ISSN 0017-9310); 95; 535-539
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The spallation phenomenon was studied through numerical analysis using a coupled Lagrangian particle tracking code and a hypersonic aerothermodynamics computational fluid dynamics solver. The results show that carbon emission from spalled particles results in a significant modification of the gas composition of the post shock layer. Preliminary results from a test-campaign at the NASA Langley HYMETS facility are presented. Using an automated image processing of high-speed images, two-dimensional velocity vectors of the spalled particles were calculated. In a 30 second test at 100 W/cm2 of cold-wall heat-flux, more than 1300 particles were detected, with an average velocity of 102 m/s, and most frequent observed velocity of 60 m/s.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: NF1676L-20135 , European Symposium on Aerothermodynamics for Space Vehicles; 2-6 Mar. 2015; Lisbon; Portugal
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The Porous Microstructure Analysis (PuMA) software is a suite of tools for the analysis of porous materials and generation of material microstructures. From microstructural data, often obtained through X-ray microtomography, PuMA can determine a number of effective material properties and perform material response simulations. Version 2.2 includes capabilities for computing volume fractions, porosity, specific surface area, effective thermal and electrical conductivities, and continuum and rarefied diffusive tortuosity. PuMA can also simulate competitive diffusion/reaction processes at the micro-scale, such as surface oxidation. In this poster, recent advancements to the PuMA software are detailed, including the full refactoring of PuMA into v3.0, a new module to compute heat conduction in anisotropic materials, a particle method for simulating molecular beam experiments, a new finite-volume Laplace solver, complex fibrous material generation, woven material generation, and a coupling of PuMA with the DAKOTA software for advanced statistics.
    Keywords: Computer Programming and Software
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN61349 , Ablation Workshop; 17-18 Sep. 2018; Burlington, VT; United States
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