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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 437 (2005), S. 687-692 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Though critically important in sustaining the ocean's biological pump, the cycling of nutrients in the subtropical gyres is poorly understood. The supply of nutrients to the sunlit surface layer of the ocean has traditionally been attributed solely to vertical processes. However, horizontal ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-04-03
    Description: Horizontal transport at the boundaries of the subtropical gyres plays a crucial role in providing the nutrients that fuel gyre primary productivity, the heat that helps restratify the surface mixed layer, and the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) that influences air‐sea carbon exchange. Mesoscale eddies may be an important component of these horizontal transports; however, previous studies have not quantified the horizontal tracer transport due to eddies across the subtropical gyre boundaries. Here we assess the physical mechanisms that control the horizontal transport of mass, heat, nutrients and carbon across the North Pacific and North Atlantic subtropical gyre boundaries using the eddy‐rich ocean component of a climate model (GFDL's CM2.6) coupled to a simple biogeochemical model (mini‐BLING). Our results suggest that horizontal transport across the gyre boundaries supplies a substantial amount of mass and tracers to the ventilated layer of both Northern Hemisphere subtropical gyres, with the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream acting as main exchange gateways. Mass, heat, and DIC supply is principally driven by the time‐mean circulation, whereas nutrient transport differs markedly from the other tracers, as nutrients are mainly supplied to both subtropical gyres by down‐gradient eddy mixing across gyre boundaries. A budget analysis further reveals that the horizontal nutrient transport, combining the roles of both mean and eddy components, is responsible for more than three quarters of the total nutrient supply into the subtropical gyres, surpassing a recent estimate based on a coarse resolution model and thus further highlighting the importance of horizontal nutrient transport.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: This study examines the role of processes transporting tracers across the Polar Front (PF) in the depth interval between the surface and major topographic sills, which this study refers to as the “PF core.” A preindustrial control simulation of an eddying climate model coupled to a biogeochemical model [GFDL Climate Model, version 2.6 (CM2.6)– simplified version of the Biogeochemistry with Light Iron Nutrients and Gas (miniBLING) 0.1° ocean model] is used to investigate the transport of heat, carbon, oxygen, and phosphate across the PF core, with a particular focus on the role of mesoscale eddies. The authors find that the total transport across the PF core results from a ubiquitous Ekman transport that drives the upwelled tracers to the north and a localized opposing eddy transport that induces tracer leakages to the south at major topographic obstacles. In the Ekman layer, the southward eddy transport only partially compensates the northward Ekman transport, while below the Ekman layer, the southward eddy transport dominates the total transport but remains much smaller in magnitude than the near-surface northward transport. Most of the southward branch of the total transport is achieved below the PF core, mainly through geostrophic currents. This study finds that the eddy-diffusive transport reinforces the southward eddy-advective transport for carbon and heat, and opposes it for oxygen and phosphate. Eddy-advective transport is likely to be the leading-order component of eddy-induced transport for all four tracers. However, eddy-diffusive transport may provide a significant contribution to the southward eddy heat transport due to strong along-isopycnal temperature gradients.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: CLIMODE (CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment) is a research program designed to understand and quantify the processes responsible for the formation and dissipation of North Atlantic subtropical mode water, also called Eighteen Degree Water (EDW). Among these processes, the amount of buoyancy loss at the ocean-atmosphere interface is still uncertain and needs to be accurately quantified. In November 2006, cruise 434 onboard R/V Oceanus traveled in the region of the separated Gulf Stream and its recirculation, where intense oceanic heat loss to the atmosphere in the winter is believed to trigger the formation of EDW. During this cruise, the surface mooring F that was anchored in the core of the Gulf Stream was replaced by a new one, as well as two subsurface moorings C and D located on the southeastern edge of the stream. Surface drifters, ARGO and bobbers RAFOS floats were deployed, CTD profiles and water samples were also carried out. This array of instruments will permit a characterization of EDW with high spatial and temporal resolutions and accurate in-situ measurements of air-sea fluxes in the EDW formation region. The present report documents this cruise, the methods and locations for the deployments of instruments and some evaluation of the measurements from these instruments.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Science Foundation under contract No. OCE04-24536
    Keywords: Ocean-atmosphere interaction ; Oceanographic instruments ; Oceanus (Ship : 1975-) Cruise OC434
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-09-17
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 90 (2009): 1337-1350, doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2706.1.
    Description: A major oceanographic field experiment is described, which is designed to observe, quantify, and understand the creation and dispersal of weakly stratified fluid known as “mode water” in the region of the Gulf Stream. Formed in the wintertime by convection driven by the most intense air–sea fluxes observed anywhere over the globe, the role of mode waters in the general circulation of the subtropical gyre and its biogeo-chemical cycles is also addressed. The experiment is known as the CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE). Here we review the scientific objectives of the experiment and present some preliminary results.
    Description: Physical Oceanography program of NSF
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 38 (2008): 968-983, doi:10.1175/2007JPO3807.1.
    Description: Labrador Sea Water (LSW), a dense water mass formed by convection in the subpolar North Atlantic, is an important constituent of the meridional overturning circulation. Understanding how the water mass enters the deep western boundary current (DWBC), one of the primary pathways by which it exits the subpolar gyre, can shed light on the continuity between climate conditions in the formation region and their downstream signal. Using the trajectories of (profiling) autonomous Lagrangian circulation explorer [(P)ALACE] floats, operating between 1996 and 2002, three processes are evaluated for their role in the entry of Labrador Sea Water in the DWBC: 1) LSW is formed directly in the DWBC, 2) eddies flux LSW laterally from the interior Labrador Sea to the DWBC, and 3) a horizontally divergent mean flow advects LSW from the interior to the DWBC. A comparison of the heat flux associated with each of these three mechanisms suggests that all three contribute to the transformation of the boundary current as it transits the Labrador Sea. The formation of LSW directly in the DWBC and the eddy heat flux between the interior Labrador Sea and the DWBC may play leading roles in setting the interannual variability of the exported water mass.
    Description: We are also grateful to the NSF for their support of this research.
    Keywords: Boundary currents ; Water masses ; Ocean circulation ; Lagrangian circulation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Two years of temperature, salinity, current, and nutrient data were collected on four subsurface moorings as part of the 2 year field component of the CLIMODE experiment. The moorings were located in North Atlantic’s subtropical gyre, south-east of the Gulf Stream. Two moorings, the most heavily instrumented, were close to the Gulf Stream, in the region where cold air outbreaks force large air-sea fluxes and where Eighteen Degree Water outcrops. Two other moorings were located farther south and carried more limited instrumentation. The moorings were initially deployed in November of 2005, turned around in November of 2006 and finally recovered in November of 2007. During the first year, the moorings close to the Gulf Stream suffered considerable blow down, and some of the instruments failed. During the second year, the blow down was greatly reduced and most instruments collected a full year worth of data.
    Description: Funding was provided by the Division of Ocean Sciences of the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OCE-0424536.
    Keywords: Hydrography ; CLIvar MOde Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE) ; Oceanus (Ship : 1975-) Cruise OC419 ; Oceanus (Ship : 1975-) Cruise OC434 ; Oceanus (Ship : 1975-) Cruise OC442 ; Atlantis (Ship : 1996-) Cruise AT13
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Ocean boundary current systems are key components of the climate system, are home to highly productive ecosystems, and have numerous societal impacts. Establishment of a global network of boundary current observing systems is a critical part of ongoing development of the Global Ocean Observing System. The characteristics of boundary current systems are reviewed, focusing on scientific and societal motivations for sustained observing. Techniques currently used to observe boundary current systems are reviewed, followed by a census of the current state of boundary current observing systems globally. The next steps in the development of boundary current observing systems are considered, leading to several specific recommendations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Highlights: • Global mean sea level simulated in interannual CORE simulations. • Regional sea level patterns simulated in interannual CORE simulations. • Theoretical foundation for analysis of global mean sea level and regional patterns. Abstract: We provide an assessment of sea level simulated in a suite of global ocean-sea ice models using the interannual CORE atmospheric state to determine surface ocean boundary buoyancy and momentum fluxes. These CORE-II simulations are compared amongst themselves as well as to observation-based estimates. We focus on the final 15 years of the simulations (1993–2007), as this is a period where the CORE-II atmospheric state is well sampled, and it allows us to compare sea level related fields to both satellite and in situ analyses. The ensemble mean of the CORE-II simulations broadly agree with various global and regional observation-based analyses during this period, though with the global mean thermosteric sea level rise biased low relative to observation-based analyses. The simulations reveal a positive trend in dynamic sea level in the west Pacific and negative trend in the east, with this trend arising from wind shifts and regional changes in upper 700 m ocean heat content. The models also exhibit a thermosteric sea level rise in the subpolar North Atlantic associated with a transition around 1995/1996 of the North Atlantic Oscillation to its negative phase, and the advection of warm subtropical waters into the subpolar gyre. Sea level trends are predominantly associated with steric trends, with thermosteric effects generally far larger than halosteric effects, except in the Arctic and North Atlantic. There is a general anti-correlation between thermosteric and halosteric effects for much of the World Ocean, associated with density compensated changes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-13
    Description: The Paris Agreement has initiated a scientific debate on the role that carbon removal – or net negative emissions – might play in achieving less than 1.5K of global mean surface warming by 2100. Here, we probe the sensitivity of a comprehensive Earth system model (GFDL-ESM2M) to three different atmospheric CO2 concentration pathways, two of which arrive at 1.5K of warming in 2100 by very different pathways. We run five ensemble members of each of these simulations: (1) a standard Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5) scenario, which produces 2K of surface warming by 2100 in our model; (2) a “stabilization” pathway in which atmospheric CO2 concentration never exceeds 440ppm and the global mean temperature rise is approximately 1.5K by 2100; and (3) an “overshoot” pathway that passes through 2K of warming at mid-century, before ramping down atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as if using carbon removal, to end at 1.5K of warming at 2100. Although the global mean surface temperature change in response to the overshoot pathway is similar to the stabilization pathway in 2100, this similarity belies several important differences in other climate metrics, such as warming over land masses, the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), ocean acidification, sea ice coverage, and the global mean sea level change and its regional expressions. In 2100, the overshoot ensemble shows a greater global steric sea level rise and weaker AMOC mass transport than in the stabilization scenario, with both of these metrics close to the ensemble mean of RCP4.5. There is strong ocean surface cooling in the North Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean in response to overshoot forcing due to perturbations in the ocean circulation. Thus, overshoot forcing in this model reduces the rate of sea ice loss in the Labrador, Nordic, Ross, and Weddell seas relative to the stabilized pathway, suggesting a negative radiative feedback in response to the early rapid warming. Finally, the ocean perturbation in response to warming leads to strong pathway dependence of sea level rise in northern North American cities, with overshoot forcing producing up to 10cm of additional sea level rise by 2100 relative to stabilization forcing.
    Print ISSN: 2190-4979
    Electronic ISSN: 2190-4987
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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