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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 190 (1961), S. 148-150 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] TWO single gene mutations in the mouse show similar timing of expression during post-natal development. The two mutant al eles were found to produce nearly normal phenotypes until some critical time after birth following which normal differentiation is arrested. The first of these genes, originally ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 282 (1979), S. 314-316 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A genetic complex, termed [Bgl], mapping near the Mod-l locus on chromosome 9, contains within it elements governing the structure, development and rate of synthesis of /3-galac-tosidase4'9"15. The structural gene Bgl-e is defined by an electrophoretic polymorphism which affects the enzyme in all ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 28 (1956), S. 284-286 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: egasyn ; glucuronidase ; membrane binding ; radioimmunoassay ; intracellular distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Previous studies have suggested that the binding of mouse glucuronidase to endoplasmic reticulum membrane is stabilized by the membrane protein egasyn. Using a radioimmunoassay for egasyn, we have now examined the inheritance of egasyn levels in mice. Mice of the ibred strain C57BL/6J, which have normal levels of microsomal glucuronidase, contained 56±10 μg egasyn per gram of liver. Mice of the inbred strain YBR, which carry the Eg 0 mutation resulting in the absence of microsomal glucuronidase, did not contain detectable levels of egasyn. The F1 progeny of these two strains contained intermediate levels of egasyn, 25±4 μg egasyn per gram of liver. Progeny from the backcross of these F1 animals to YBR were distributed equally into two discrete phenotypic classes. One class lacked both egasyn and microsomal glucuronidase, while the other class contained 25±3 μg egasyn per gram of liver and contained normal levels of microsomal glucuronidase. Thus egasyn levels are determined by the Eg locus and show additive inheritance. These results suggest that the Eg gene codes for egasyn and that it is the inability to produce egasyn that results in a deficiency of microsomal glucuronidase in the Eg 0 mutant.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: β-glucuronidase synthesis ; mRNA levels ; induction by androgen ; congenic mouse strains
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A new haplotype of the β-glucuronidase gene complex, [Gus]N, has been characterized following its transfer from the PAC/Cr strain to the standard strain C57BL/6J. TheN haplotype contains a novel structural gene allele which encodes an allozyme differing from all previously characterized allozymes in both size and charge. Altered systemic regulation is exhibited by the [Gus]N haplotype. Multiple tissues contain levels of GUS protein that are 60±15% those found in the standardB haplotype. The regulatory mechanism for reduction is complex, involving tissue-specific changes in both enzyme synthesis and enzyme turnover. The changes in GUS protein synthesis do not result from changes in GUS mRNA levels. Instead, the amount of mature enzyme formed per mRNA molecule, or translational yield, is altered. These regulatory changes parallel those seen in other systemic regulatory variants of GUS which are also altered in translational yield. A commonality of mechanism among systemic regulatory variants of this gene is suggested. TheN haplotype is also exceptional in the nature of its response to androgenic induction in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells. The time course for GUS induction consists of a lag period followed by a progressive increase in mRNA, rate of enzyme synthesis, and enzyme activity. For the [Gus]N haplotype the lag is of an exceptionally short duration and the plateau is of a greater magnitude than for any haplotype previously described.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Biochemical genetics 4 (1970), S. 237-242 
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: β-glucuronidase ; induction ; androgens ; kidney ; epithelial cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The magnitude and kinetics of β-glucuronidase induction in mouse kidney are determined by a cis-acting regulatory gene, Gus-r, that is closely linked to the enzyme structural gene. The accumulation of β-glucuronidase mRNA during induction is much slower than the turnover time of the mRNA, suggesting progressive acquisition of mRNA synthesizing capacity during induction. Counts of the numbers of induced cells present at various times of induction in strains carrying three different alleles of Gus-r show that all potentially responsive cells respond immediately. The level of induction is progressive in individual cells and does not involve continued recruitment of new cells into the induced population. It appears that during induction each chromosome becomes progressively more active in directing the synthesis of β-glucuronidase.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: lysosomes ; twins ; β-glucuronidase ; β-galactosidase ; β-hexosaminidase ; α-galactosidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Acid hydrolases are present in normal human urine in appreciable amounts. Their source appears to be lysosomes released by kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells. For a given lysosomal enzyme the total amount excreted is the product of two parameters, a general one describing the rate of lysosome secretion and a specific one describing the relative concentration of that enzyme in lysosomes. There is considerable population variation in both parameters. Studies of β-glucuronidase, β-galactosidase, β-hexosaminidase, and α-galactosidase in monozygotic and dizygotic twins show that an appreciable part of this variation is genetic in origin. This appears to be true for both total enzyme excretion and lysosome composition. Although it was not possible to test directly whether this is also true for the rate of lysosome secretion, the fact that the two former parameters are both heritable strongly suggests that the rate of lysosome excretion is also a heritable trait. Taken together with previous data, the results suggest polygenic control of these biochemical traits. It is particularly significant that β-glucuronidase excretion in normal individuals is a heritable trait since the excretion of this enzyme has frequently been used as a measure of normal and pathological physiological changes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: β-glucuronidase ; gene regulation ; response to androgen ; response to estrogen ; regulatory locus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Both enzyme activity and mRNA concentration of β-glucuronidase were measured in kidneys of mice treated with testosterone and the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol. Six congenic strains, all having a C57BL6/J genetic background but each having a different haplotype of the β-glucuronidase gene complex, were compared. In each strain the induction caused by androgen was partially repressed by estrogen. The extent of this antagonism varied among the six haplotypes and was not coordinate with the extent of induction by androgen alone. Antagonism appears to be regulated by at least two alleles of a new locus,Gus-e, within the β-glucuronidase gene complex. Repression by estrogen, like induction by androgen, appears to take place primarily at the transcriptional level. Kinetic studies revealed that estrogen causes the androgen response curve to plateau earlier and at a lower level. This suggests that estrogen increases the rate of gene deactivation rather than decreasing the rate of gene activation, Isoelectric focusing of β-glucuronidase fromGus-e a andGus-e b mice and their F1 progeny revealed that the genes are regulated incis. Together, these findings support a model in which both sex hormones exert their effects on separate DNA response elements located in close proximity to the gene or within the gene itself.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4927
    Keywords: β-glucuronidase ; gene regulation ; response to androgen ; response to estrogen ; regulatory locus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Both enzyme activity and mRNA concentration of β-glucuronidase were measured in kidneys of mice treated with testosterone and the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol. Six congenic strains, all having a C57BL6/J genetic background but each having a different haplotype of the β-glucuronidase gene complex, were compared. In each strain the induction caused by androgen was partially repressed by estrogen. The extent of this antagonism varied among the six haplotypes and was not coordinate with the extent of induction by androgen alone. Antagonism appears to be regulated by at least two alleles of a new locus,Gus-e, within the β-glucuronidase gene complex. Repression by estrogen, like induction by androgen, appears to take place primarily at the transcriptional level. Kinetic studies revealed that estrogen causes the androgen response curve to plateau earlier and at a lower level. This suggests that estrogen increases the rate of gene deactivation rather than decreasing the rate of gene activation, Isoelectric focusing of β-glucuronidase fromGus-e a andGus-e b mice and their F1 progeny revealed that the genes are regulated incis. Together, these findings support a model in which both sex hormones exert their effects on separate DNA response elements located in close proximity to the gene or within the gene itself.
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