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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Wien [u.a.] : Springer
    Call number: AWI A13-98-0418
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 129 S.
    Series Statement: Meteorology and atmospheric physics 63, 1-2 (1997)
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary A radiative-conductive model is constructed to study short-term effects of various carbon dioxide concentrations on the atmospheric boundary layer for different seasons. The distribution of the exchange coefficient is modeled with the aid of the KEYPS formula. Infrared radiation calculations are carried out by means of the emissivity method and by assuming that water vapor and carbon dioxide are the only radiatively active gases. Global radiation is computed by specification of Linke's turbidity factor. It is found that doubling the carbon dioxide concentration increases the temperature near the ground by approximately one-half of one degree if clouds are absent. A sevenfold increase of the present normal carbon dioxide concentration increases the temperature near the ground by approximately one degree. Temperature profiles resulting from presently observed carbon dioxide concentration and convective cloudiness of 50% or less are compared with those resulting from doubled carbon dioxide concentrations and the same amounts of cloud cover. Again, it is found that a doubling of carbon dioxide increases the temperature in the lower boundary layer by about one-half of one degree. The present results are obtained on the basis of fixed temperature boundary conditions as contrasted to the study ofManabe andWetherald (1967). Howeve, the conclusions are not addressed to global climate change, but to the distribution of the temperature of the air layer near the ground.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary An investigation of the effect of sinusoidal vertical motion on turbulent diffusion is made. The diffusion models analyzed are i) without vertical motion, ii) with a simple sinusoidal vertical motion of constant amplitude, iii) with a sinusoidal vertical motion of damping amplitude. It is found from this investigation that the presence of undulations in vertical velocity has significantly enhanced the dispersion of pollution. Comparison of effective diffusivity shows an increase by a factor of 3.9 where no damping of undulations occurred, and by a factor of 2.8 where we have a damping of the undulations below the level of the source. This increase in dispersion can largely be explaied by the fact that the undulations have created a dilution in concentration because of the vertical motion and a configuration in which horizontal diffusivity is allowed to have an effect in pulling pollutant away from the axis of maximum concentration. The damping of undulations below the level of the source serves to suppress this configuration which in turn reduces dispersion below the source, an obviously favorable antipollution configuration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wärme- und Feuchtefluß in den Grenzschichten des Erdbodens und der Atmosphäre werden als gekoppeltes, nicht-stationäres Gleichungssystem erfaßt. Die numerische Lösung des Systems führt auf die hier zu untersuchende Temperaturverteilung der bodennahen Luftschicht und des Erdbodens. Der Luftaustausch wird mittels der Keyps-Formel erfaßt, während die Diffusionsgleichungen des Erdbodens sich auf die Theorie von Philip [8] stützen. Die langwelligen und globalen Strahlungsströme werden nach Methoden berechnet, die von Möller [7] und Philipps [10] skizziert wurden. Resultate werden mit Meßdaten des Great-Plains-Turbulence-Projektes von Lettau und Davidson [4] sowie mit dem Sasamorischen Modell [15] verglichen, welches zum Teil auf der sogenannten Constant-Flux-Annahme beruht. Es wird gefunden, daß vernünftige Variationen der Bodenfeuchte nicht-vernachlässigbare Variationen in den Temperaturprofilen des Erdbodens und der bodennahen Luftschicht hervorrufen. Die Resultate weichen jedoch nicht kritisch voneinander ab. Eine sachgerechte Erfassung des Erdbodentypus kann von größerer Wichtigkeit sein als die Beschreibung der Bodenfeuchte, die meist nur ganz ungenau bekannt ist.
    Notes: Summary The soil and atmospheric boundary layers, considered as a coupled, non-steady state, heat-moisture transfer system, is analyzed to examine the effects of soil moisture variations upon the temperature distributions of the air layer near the ground and the underlying soil. The exchange coefficient for the air is approximated by the Keyps formula; the soil diffusion equations follow the theory of Philip [8]; a method described by Möller [7] is used to treat the long wave radiation; and global radiation is obtained using a procedure first outlined by Philipps [10]. The results of this analysis are subsequently compared with actual data collected in the Great Plains Turbulence Project by Lettau and Davidson [4] and with the model of Sasamori [15] which is partly based upon the constant flux assumption. It is found that reasonable variation in the soil moisture content gives non-negligible variations of the temperature profile in the atmosphere as well as in the soil. Results, however, are not critically different from each other. The specification of the soil type can be of greater importance than the description of soil moisture which is hardly ever known.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-12-04
    Description: It is well-known that divergent wind estimates are much more dependent upon the analysis system than are estimates of the rotational wind. This conclusion is supported in recent analyses of FGGE SOP1 data produced by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA), the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). These analyses differ in the forecast models that are used for the four-dimensional assimilation, in the data rejection criteria, and, to a certain extent, in the data density. Because the final divergent wind is a product of both model constraints and observation, it is relevant to inquire how much of each goes into the final product. We presently investigate this question through a systematic analysis of tropical data that are sampled at different densities by the GLA GCM.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Proceedings of the NASA Symposium on Global Wind Measurements; p 7-14
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The deployment of a space-based Doppler lidar would provide information that is fundamental to advancing the understanding and prediction of weather and climate. This paper reviews the concepts of wind measurement by Doppler lidar, highlights the results of some observing system simulation experiments with lidar winds, and discusses the important advances in earth system science anticipated with lidar winds. Observing system simulation experiments, conducted using two different general circulation models, have shown (1) that there is a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy over the Southern Hemisphere and tropical oceans resulting from the assimilation of simulated satellite wind data, and (2) that wind data are significantly more effective than temperature or moisture data in controlling analysis error. Because accurate wind observations are currently almost entirely unavailable for the vast majority of tropical cyclones worldwide, lidar winds have the potential to substan- tially improve tropical cyclone forecasts. Similarly, to improve water vapor flux divergence calculations, a direct measure of the ageostrophic wind is needed since the present level of uncer- tainty cannot be reduced with better temperature and moisture soundings alone.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: American Meteorological Society, Bulletin (ISSN 0003-0007); 76; 6; p. 869-888
    Format: text
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  • 7
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Horizontal fluxes of atmospheric water vapor are studied for summer months during 1989 and 1992 over North and South America based on analyses from European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, US National Meteorological Center, and United Kingdom Meteorological Office. The calculations are performed over 20 deg by 20 deg box-shaped midlatitude domains located to the east of the Rocky Mountains in North America, and to the east of the Andes Mountains in South America. The fluxes are determined from operational center gridded analyses of wind and moisture. Differences in the monthly mean moisture flux divergence determined from these analyses are as large as 7 cm/month precipitable water equivalent over South America, and 3 cm/month over North America. Gridded analyses at higher spatial and temporal resolution exhibit better agreement in the moisture budget study. However, significant discrepancies of the moisture flux divergence computed from different gridded analyses still exist. The conclusion is more pessimistic than Rasmusson's estimate based on station data. Further analysis reveals that the most significant sources of error result from model surface elevation fields, gaps in the data archive, and uncertainties in the wind and specific humidity analyses. Uncertainties in the wind analyses are the most important problem. The low-level jets, in particular, are substantially different in the different data archives. Part of the reason for this may be due to the way the different analysis models parameterized physical processes affecting low-level jets. The results support the inference that the noise/signal ratio of the moisture budget may be improved more rapidly by providing better wind observations and analyses than by providing better moisture data.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-199134 , NAS 1.26:199134 , S-12871-F
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2004-06-01
    Print ISSN: 0882-8156
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0434
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1999-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0882-8156
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0434
    Topics: Geography , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1983-07-01
    Print ISSN: 0027-0644
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0493
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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