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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2000-03-25
    Description: The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map. Efforts are under way to close the remaining gaps; however, the sequence is of sufficient accuracy and contiguity to be declared substantially complete and to support an initial analysis of genome structure and preliminary gene annotation and interpretation. The genome encodes approximately 13,600 genes, somewhat fewer than the smaller Caenorhabditis elegans genome, but with comparable functional diversity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Adams, M D -- Celniker, S E -- Holt, R A -- Evans, C A -- Gocayne, J D -- Amanatides, P G -- Scherer, S E -- Li, P W -- Hoskins, R A -- Galle, R F -- George, R A -- Lewis, S E -- Richards, S -- Ashburner, M -- Henderson, S N -- Sutton, G G -- Wortman, J R -- Yandell, M D -- Zhang, Q -- Chen, L X -- Brandon, R C -- Rogers, Y H -- Blazej, R G -- Champe, M -- Pfeiffer, B D -- Wan, K H -- Doyle, C -- Baxter, E G -- Helt, G -- Nelson, C R -- Gabor, G L -- Abril, J F -- Agbayani, A -- An, H J -- Andrews-Pfannkoch, C -- Baldwin, D -- Ballew, R M -- Basu, A -- Baxendale, J -- Bayraktaroglu, L -- Beasley, E M -- Beeson, K Y -- Benos, P V -- Berman, B P -- Bhandari, D -- Bolshakov, S -- Borkova, D -- Botchan, M R -- Bouck, J -- Brokstein, P -- Brottier, P -- Burtis, K C -- Busam, D A -- Butler, H -- Cadieu, E -- Center, A -- Chandra, I -- Cherry, J M -- Cawley, S -- Dahlke, C -- Davenport, L B -- Davies, P -- de Pablos, B -- Delcher, A -- Deng, Z -- Mays, A D -- Dew, I -- Dietz, S M -- Dodson, K -- Doup, L E -- Downes, M -- Dugan-Rocha, S -- Dunkov, B C -- Dunn, P -- Durbin, K J -- Evangelista, C C -- Ferraz, C -- Ferriera, S -- Fleischmann, W -- Fosler, C -- Gabrielian, A E -- Garg, N S -- Gelbart, W M -- Glasser, K -- Glodek, A -- Gong, F -- Gorrell, J H -- Gu, Z -- Guan, P -- Harris, M -- Harris, N L -- Harvey, D -- Heiman, T J -- Hernandez, J R -- Houck, J -- Hostin, D -- Houston, K A -- Howland, T J -- Wei, M H -- Ibegwam, C -- Jalali, M -- Kalush, F -- Karpen, G H -- Ke, Z -- Kennison, J A -- Ketchum, K A -- Kimmel, B E -- Kodira, C D -- Kraft, C -- Kravitz, S -- Kulp, D -- Lai, Z -- Lasko, P -- Lei, Y -- Levitsky, A A -- Li, J -- Li, Z -- Liang, Y -- Lin, X -- Liu, X -- Mattei, B -- McIntosh, T C -- McLeod, M P -- McPherson, D -- Merkulov, G -- Milshina, N V -- Mobarry, C -- Morris, J -- Moshrefi, A -- Mount, S M -- Moy, M -- Murphy, B -- Murphy, L -- Muzny, D M -- Nelson, D L -- Nelson, D R -- Nelson, K A -- Nixon, K -- Nusskern, D R -- Pacleb, J M -- Palazzolo, M -- Pittman, G S -- Pan, S -- Pollard, J -- Puri, V -- Reese, M G -- Reinert, K -- Remington, K -- Saunders, R D -- Scheeler, F -- Shen, H -- Shue, B C -- Siden-Kiamos, I -- Simpson, M -- Skupski, M P -- Smith, T -- Spier, E -- Spradling, A C -- Stapleton, M -- Strong, R -- Sun, E -- Svirskas, R -- Tector, C -- Turner, R -- Venter, E -- Wang, A H -- Wang, X -- Wang, Z Y -- Wassarman, D A -- Weinstock, G M -- Weissenbach, J -- Williams, S M -- WoodageT -- Worley, K C -- Wu, D -- Yang, S -- Yao, Q A -- Ye, J -- Yeh, R F -- Zaveri, J S -- Zhan, M -- Zhang, G -- Zhao, Q -- Zheng, L -- Zheng, X H -- Zhong, F N -- Zhong, W -- Zhou, X -- Zhu, S -- Zhu, X -- Smith, H O -- Gibbs, R A -- Myers, E W -- Rubin, G M -- Venter, J C -- P50-HG00750/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Mar 24;287(5461):2185-95.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Celera Genomics, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10731132" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Transport/genetics ; Chromatin/genetics ; Cloning, Molecular ; Computational Biology ; Contig Mapping ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics ; DNA Repair/genetics ; DNA Replication/genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/*genetics/metabolism ; Euchromatin ; Gene Library ; Genes, Insect ; *Genome ; Heterochromatin/genetics ; Insect Proteins/chemistry/genetics/physiology ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics ; Protein Biosynthesis ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2003-04-12
    Description: DNA sequence and annotation of the entire human chromosome 7, encompassing nearly 158 million nucleotides of DNA and 1917 gene structures, are presented. To generate a higher order description, additional structural features such as imprinted genes, fragile sites, and segmental duplications were integrated at the level of the DNA sequence with medical genetic data, including 440 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with disease. This approach enabled the discovery of candidate genes for developmental diseases including autism.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882961/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882961/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Scherer, Stephen W -- Cheung, Joseph -- MacDonald, Jeffrey R -- Osborne, Lucy R -- Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko -- Herbrick, Jo-Anne -- Carson, Andrew R -- Parker-Katiraee, Layla -- Skaug, Jennifer -- Khaja, Razi -- Zhang, Junjun -- Hudek, Alexander K -- Li, Martin -- Haddad, May -- Duggan, Gavin E -- Fernandez, Bridget A -- Kanematsu, Emiko -- Gentles, Simone -- Christopoulos, Constantine C -- Choufani, Sanaa -- Kwasnicka, Dorota -- Zheng, Xiangqun H -- Lai, Zhongwu -- Nusskern, Deborah -- Zhang, Qing -- Gu, Zhiping -- Lu, Fu -- Zeesman, Susan -- Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J -- Teshima, Ikuko -- Chitayat, David -- Shuman, Cheryl -- Weksberg, Rosanna -- Zackai, Elaine H -- Grebe, Theresa A -- Cox, Sarah R -- Kirkpatrick, Susan J -- Rahman, Nazneen -- Friedman, Jan M -- Heng, Henry H Q -- Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe -- Lo-Coco, Francesco -- Belloni, Elena -- Shaffer, Lisa G -- Pober, Barbara -- Morton, Cynthia C -- Gusella, James F -- Bruns, Gail A P -- Korf, Bruce R -- Quade, Bradley J -- Ligon, Azra H -- Ferguson, Heather -- Higgins, Anne W -- Leach, Natalia T -- Herrick, Steven R -- Lemyre, Emmanuelle -- Farra, Chantal G -- Kim, Hyung-Goo -- Summers, Anne M -- Gripp, Karen W -- Roberts, Wendy -- Szatmari, Peter -- Winsor, Elizabeth J T -- Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz -- Teebi, Ahmed -- Minassian, Berge A -- Kere, Juha -- Armengol, Lluis -- Pujana, Miguel Angel -- Estivill, Xavier -- Wilson, Michael D -- Koop, Ben F -- Tosi, Sabrina -- Moore, Gudrun E -- Boright, Andrew P -- Zlotorynski, Eitan -- Kerem, Batsheva -- Kroisel, Peter M -- Petek, Erwin -- Oscier, David G -- Mould, Sarah J -- Dohner, Hartmut -- Dohner, Konstanze -- Rommens, Johanna M -- Vincent, John B -- Venter, J Craig -- Li, Peter W -- Mural, Richard J -- Adams, Mark D -- Tsui, Lap-Chee -- 38103/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- P01 GM061354/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2003 May 2;300(5620):767-72. Epub 2003 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8. steve@genet.sickkids.on.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12690205" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autistic Disorder/genetics ; Chromosome Aberrations ; Chromosome Fragile Sites ; Chromosome Fragility ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7/*genetics ; Computational Biology ; Congenital Abnormalities/genetics ; CpG Islands ; DNA, Complementary ; Databases, Genetic ; Euchromatin/genetics ; Expressed Sequence Tags ; Gene Duplication ; Genes, Overlapping ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics ; Genomic Imprinting ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Limb Deformities, Congenital/genetics ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Neoplasms/genetics ; Pseudogenes ; RNA/genetics ; Retroelements ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Williams Syndrome/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2002-06-01
    Description: The high degree of similarity between the mouse and human genomes is demonstrated through analysis of the sequence of mouse chromosome 16 (Mmu 16), which was obtained as part of a whole-genome shotgun assembly of the mouse genome. The mouse genome is about 10% smaller than the human genome, owing to a lower repetitive DNA content. Comparison of the structure and protein-coding potential of Mmu 16 with that of the homologous segments of the human genome identifies regions of conserved synteny with human chromosomes (Hsa) 3, 8, 12, 16, 21, and 22. Gene content and order are highly conserved between Mmu 16 and the syntenic blocks of the human genome. Of the 731 predicted genes on Mmu 16, 509 align with orthologs on the corresponding portions of the human genome, 44 are likely paralogous to these genes, and 164 genes have homologs elsewhere in the human genome; there are 14 genes for which we could find no human counterpart.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mural, Richard J -- Adams, Mark D -- Myers, Eugene W -- Smith, Hamilton O -- Miklos, George L Gabor -- Wides, Ron -- Halpern, Aaron -- Li, Peter W -- Sutton, Granger G -- Nadeau, Joe -- Salzberg, Steven L -- Holt, Robert A -- Kodira, Chinnappa D -- Lu, Fu -- Chen, Lin -- Deng, Zuoming -- Evangelista, Carlos C -- Gan, Weiniu -- Heiman, Thomas J -- Li, Jiayin -- Li, Zhenya -- Merkulov, Gennady V -- Milshina, Natalia V -- Naik, Ashwinikumar K -- Qi, Rong -- Shue, Bixiong Chris -- Wang, Aihui -- Wang, Jian -- Wang, Xin -- Yan, Xianghe -- Ye, Jane -- Yooseph, Shibu -- Zhao, Qi -- Zheng, Liansheng -- Zhu, Shiaoping C -- Biddick, Kendra -- Bolanos, Randall -- Delcher, Arthur L -- Dew, Ian M -- Fasulo, Daniel -- Flanigan, Michael J -- Huson, Daniel H -- Kravitz, Saul A -- Miller, Jason R -- Mobarry, Clark M -- Reinert, Knut -- Remington, Karin A -- Zhang, Qing -- Zheng, Xiangqun H -- Nusskern, Deborah R -- Lai, Zhongwu -- Lei, Yiding -- Zhong, Wenyan -- Yao, Alison -- Guan, Ping -- Ji, Rui-Ru -- Gu, Zhiping -- Wang, Zhen-Yuan -- Zhong, Fei -- Xiao, Chunlin -- Chiang, Chia-Chien -- Yandell, Mark -- Wortman, Jennifer R -- Amanatides, Peter G -- Hladun, Suzanne L -- Pratts, Eric C -- Johnson, Jeffery E -- Dodson, Kristina L -- Woodford, Kerry J -- Evans, Cheryl A -- Gropman, Barry -- Rusch, Douglas B -- Venter, Eli -- Wang, Mei -- Smith, Thomas J -- Houck, Jarrett T -- Tompkins, Donald E -- Haynes, Charles -- Jacob, Debbie -- Chin, Soo H -- Allen, David R -- Dahlke, Carl E -- Sanders, Robert -- Li, Kelvin -- Liu, Xiangjun -- Levitsky, Alexander A -- Majoros, William H -- Chen, Quan -- Xia, Ashley C -- Lopez, John R -- Donnelly, Michael T -- Newman, Matthew H -- Glodek, Anna -- Kraft, Cheryl L -- Nodell, Marc -- Ali, Feroze -- An, Hui-Jin -- Baldwin-Pitts, Danita -- Beeson, Karen Y -- Cai, Shuang -- Carnes, Mark -- Carver, Amy -- Caulk, Parris M -- Center, Angela -- Chen, Yen-Hui -- Cheng, Ming-Lai -- Coyne, My D -- Crowder, Michelle -- Danaher, Steven -- Davenport, Lionel B -- Desilets, Raymond -- Dietz, Susanne M -- Doup, Lisa -- Dullaghan, Patrick -- Ferriera, Steven -- Fosler, Carl R -- Gire, Harold C -- Gluecksmann, Andres -- Gocayne, Jeannine D -- Gray, Jonathan -- Hart, Brit -- Haynes, Jason -- Hoover, Jeffery -- Howland, Tim -- Ibegwam, Chinyere -- Jalali, Mena -- Johns, David -- Kline, Leslie -- Ma, Daniel S -- MacCawley, Steven -- Magoon, Anand -- Mann, Felecia -- May, David -- McIntosh, Tina C -- Mehta, Somil -- Moy, Linda -- Moy, Mee C -- Murphy, Brian J -- Murphy, Sean D -- Nelson, Keith A -- Nuri, Zubeda -- Parker, Kimberly A -- Prudhomme, Alexandre C -- Puri, Vinita N -- Qureshi, Hina -- Raley, John C -- Reardon, Matthew S -- Regier, Megan A -- Rogers, Yu-Hui C -- Romblad, Deanna L -- Schutz, Jakob -- Scott, John L -- Scott, Richard -- Sitter, Cynthia D -- Smallwood, Michella -- Sprague, Arlan C -- Stewart, Erin -- Strong, Renee V -- Suh, Ellen -- Sylvester, Karena -- Thomas, Reginald -- Tint, Ni Ni -- Tsonis, Christopher -- Wang, Gary -- Wang, George -- Williams, Monica S -- Williams, Sherita M -- Windsor, Sandra M -- Wolfe, Keriellen -- Wu, Mitchell M -- Zaveri, Jayshree -- Chaturvedi, Kabir -- Gabrielian, Andrei E -- Ke, Zhaoxi -- Sun, Jingtao -- Subramanian, Gangadharan -- Venter, J Craig -- Pfannkoch, Cynthia M -- Barnstead, Mary -- Stephenson, Lisa D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1661-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Celera Genomics, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. richard.mural@celera.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12040188" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Composition ; Chromosomes/*genetics ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Computational Biology ; Conserved Sequence ; Databases, Nucleic Acid ; Evolution, Molecular ; Genes ; Genetic Markers ; *Genome ; *Genome, Human ; Genomics ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred A/genetics ; Mice, Inbred DBA/genetics ; Mice, Inbred Strains/*genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Physical Chromosome Mapping ; Proteins/chemistry/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Species Specificity ; *Synteny
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-08
    Description: The contents of 16 heavy metal elements such as As,Be,Co,Cr,Cu,Ga,Li,Ni, Sr,V,Zn,Ag,Cd,Cs,Bi, Pb and 16 rare earth elements such as Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm,Yb, Lu were analyzed, simultaneously and effectively by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method with high pressure digestion and Rh, Re as the internal standard elements. The linear correlation coefficient of each element standard curve was 0.9919- 0.9999; the detection limit of each element is 0.0003 ug/L −0.2164 ug/L; the daily and daytime deviation of each element was lower; the average recoveries were between 93.39% −110.99%, RSD was less than 7.49%. The results showed that the average content of Zn was the highest to be (32.833±0.993) mg/kg, followed by Cu, Sr and Ni, which were significantly higher than those of other 28 elements. The total amount of rare earth in Ya’an was 0.588 mg/kg −3.161 mg/kg, The average content of Ce was the highest, followed by La, Sc, Nd and Y...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2000-03-24
    Description: A comparative analysis of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-and the proteins they are predicted to encode-was undertaken in the context of cellular, developmental, and evolutionary processes. The nonredundant protein sets of flies and worms are similar in size and are only twice that of yeast, but different gene families are expanded in each genome, and the multidomain proteins and signaling pathways of the fly and worm are far more complex than those of yeast. The fly has orthologs to 177 of the 289 human disease genes examined and provides the foundation for rapid analysis of some of the basic processes involved in human disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754258/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2754258/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rubin, G M -- Yandell, M D -- Wortman, J R -- Gabor Miklos, G L -- Nelson, C R -- Hariharan, I K -- Fortini, M E -- Li, P W -- Apweiler, R -- Fleischmann, W -- Cherry, J M -- Henikoff, S -- Skupski, M P -- Misra, S -- Ashburner, M -- Birney, E -- Boguski, M S -- Brody, T -- Brokstein, P -- Celniker, S E -- Chervitz, S A -- Coates, D -- Cravchik, A -- Gabrielian, A -- Galle, R F -- Gelbart, W M -- George, R A -- Goldstein, L S -- Gong, F -- Guan, P -- Harris, N L -- Hay, B A -- Hoskins, R A -- Li, J -- Li, Z -- Hynes, R O -- Jones, S J -- Kuehl, P M -- Lemaitre, B -- Littleton, J T -- Morrison, D K -- Mungall, C -- O'Farrell, P H -- Pickeral, O K -- Shue, C -- Vosshall, L B -- Zhang, J -- Zhao, Q -- Zheng, X H -- Lewis, S -- P4IHG00739/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- P50HG00750/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM037193/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM037193-14/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM037193-15/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM060988/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM060988-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS040296/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS040296-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Mar 24;287(5461):2204-15.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10731134" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis/genetics ; Biological Evolution ; Caenorhabditis elegans/chemistry/*genetics/physiology ; Cell Adhesion/genetics ; Cell Cycle/genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/chemistry/*genetics/physiology ; Fungal Proteins/chemistry/genetics ; Genes, Duplicate ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics ; Genetics, Medical ; *Genome ; Helminth Proteins/chemistry/genetics ; Humans ; Immunity/genetics ; Insect Proteins/chemistry/genetics ; Multigene Family ; Neoplasms/genetics ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; *Proteome ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry/*genetics/physiology ; Signal Transduction/genetics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2002-08-10
    Description: Primate-specific segmental duplications are considered important in human disease and evolution. The inability to distinguish between allelic and duplication sequence overlap has hampered their characterization as well as assembly and annotation of our genome. We developed a method whereby each public sequence is analyzed at the clone level for overrepresentation within a whole-genome shotgun sequence. This test has the ability to detect duplications larger than 15 kilobases irrespective of copy number, location, or high sequence similarity. We mapped 169 large regions flanked by highly similar duplications. Twenty-four of these hot spots of genomic instability have been associated with genetic disease. Our analysis indicates a highly nonrandom chromosomal and genic distribution of recent segmental duplications, with a likely role in expanding protein diversity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bailey, Jeffrey A -- Gu, Zhiping -- Clark, Royden A -- Reinert, Knut -- Samonte, Rhea V -- Schwartz, Stuart -- Adams, Mark D -- Myers, Eugene W -- Li, Peter W -- Eichler, Evan E -- CA094816/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM58815/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG002318/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 Aug 9;297(5583):1003-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Center for Computational Genomics, and Center for Human Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12169732" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Base Sequence ; Biological Evolution ; Chromosomes, Human/genetics ; Computational Biology ; Databases, Nucleic Acid ; Exons ; Expressed Sequence Tags ; *Gene Duplication ; Gene Rearrangement ; *Genes, Duplicate ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics ; *Genome, Human ; Humans ; Models, Genetic ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Proteome ; Recombination, Genetic ; Sequence Alignment
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2001-02-22
    Description: A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five individuals. Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. The public data were shredded into 550-bp segments to create a 2.9-fold coverage of those genome regions that had been sequenced, without including biases inherent in the cloning and assembly procedure used by the publicly funded group. This brought the effective coverage in the assemblies to eightfold, reducing the number and size of gaps in the final assembly over what would be obtained with 5.11-fold coverage. The two assembly strategies yielded very similar results that largely agree with independent mapping data. The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more, and 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed 26,588 protein-encoding transcripts for which there was strong corroborating evidence and an additional approximately 12,000 computationally derived genes with mouse matches or other weak supporting evidence. Although gene-dense clusters are obvious, almost half the genes are dispersed in low G+C sequence separated by large tracts of apparently noncoding sequence. Only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. Duplications of segmental blocks, ranging in size up to chromosomal lengths, are abundant throughout the genome and reveal a complex evolutionary history. Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems. DNA sequence comparisons between the consensus sequence and publicly funded genome data provided locations of 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. Less than 1% of all SNPs resulted in variation in proteins, but the task of determining which SNPs have functional consequences remains an open challenge.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Venter, J C -- Adams, M D -- Myers, E W -- Li, P W -- Mural, R J -- Sutton, G G -- Smith, H O -- Yandell, M -- Evans, C A -- Holt, R A -- Gocayne, J D -- Amanatides, P -- Ballew, R M -- Huson, D H -- Wortman, J R -- Zhang, Q -- Kodira, C D -- Zheng, X H -- Chen, L -- Skupski, M -- Subramanian, G -- Thomas, P D -- Zhang, J -- Gabor Miklos, G L -- Nelson, C -- Broder, S -- Clark, A G -- Nadeau, J -- McKusick, V A -- Zinder, N -- Levine, A J -- Roberts, R J -- Simon, M -- Slayman, C -- Hunkapiller, M -- Bolanos, R -- Delcher, A -- Dew, I -- Fasulo, D -- Flanigan, M -- Florea, L -- Halpern, A -- Hannenhalli, S -- Kravitz, S -- Levy, S -- Mobarry, C -- Reinert, K -- Remington, K -- Abu-Threideh, J -- Beasley, E -- Biddick, K -- Bonazzi, V -- Brandon, R -- Cargill, M -- Chandramouliswaran, I -- Charlab, R -- Chaturvedi, K -- Deng, Z -- Di Francesco, V -- Dunn, P -- Eilbeck, K -- Evangelista, C -- Gabrielian, A E -- Gan, W -- Ge, W -- Gong, F -- Gu, Z -- Guan, P -- Heiman, T J -- Higgins, M E -- Ji, R R -- Ke, Z -- Ketchum, K A -- Lai, Z -- Lei, Y -- Li, Z -- Li, J -- Liang, Y -- Lin, X -- Lu, F -- Merkulov, G V -- Milshina, N -- Moore, H M -- Naik, A K -- Narayan, V A -- Neelam, B -- Nusskern, D -- Rusch, D B -- Salzberg, S -- Shao, W -- Shue, B -- Sun, J -- Wang, Z -- Wang, A -- Wang, X -- Wang, J -- Wei, M -- Wides, R -- Xiao, C -- Yan, C -- Yao, A -- Ye, J -- Zhan, M -- Zhang, W -- Zhang, H -- Zhao, Q -- Zheng, L -- Zhong, F -- Zhong, W -- Zhu, S -- Zhao, S -- Gilbert, D -- Baumhueter, S -- Spier, G -- Carter, C -- Cravchik, A -- Woodage, T -- Ali, F -- An, H -- Awe, A -- Baldwin, D -- Baden, H -- Barnstead, M -- Barrow, I -- Beeson, K -- Busam, D -- Carver, A -- Center, A -- Cheng, M L -- Curry, L -- Danaher, S -- Davenport, L -- Desilets, R -- Dietz, S -- Dodson, K -- Doup, L -- Ferriera, S -- Garg, N -- Gluecksmann, A -- Hart, B -- Haynes, J -- Haynes, C -- Heiner, C -- Hladun, S -- Hostin, D -- Houck, J -- Howland, T -- Ibegwam, C -- Johnson, J -- Kalush, F -- Kline, L -- Koduru, S -- Love, A -- Mann, F -- May, D -- McCawley, S -- McIntosh, T -- McMullen, I -- Moy, M -- Moy, L -- Murphy, B -- Nelson, K -- Pfannkoch, C -- Pratts, E -- Puri, V -- Qureshi, H -- Reardon, M -- Rodriguez, R -- Rogers, Y H -- Romblad, D -- Ruhfel, B -- Scott, R -- Sitter, C -- Smallwood, M -- Stewart, E -- Strong, R -- Suh, E -- Thomas, R -- Tint, N N -- Tse, S -- Vech, C -- Wang, G -- Wetter, J -- Williams, S -- Williams, M -- Windsor, S -- Winn-Deen, E -- Wolfe, K -- Zaveri, J -- Zaveri, K -- Abril, J F -- Guigo, R -- Campbell, M J -- Sjolander, K V -- Karlak, B -- Kejariwal, A -- Mi, H -- Lazareva, B -- Hatton, T -- Narechania, A -- Diemer, K -- Muruganujan, A -- Guo, N -- Sato, S -- Bafna, V -- Istrail, S -- Lippert, R -- Schwartz, R -- Walenz, B -- Yooseph, S -- Allen, D -- Basu, A -- Baxendale, J -- Blick, L -- Caminha, M -- Carnes-Stine, J -- Caulk, P -- Chiang, Y H -- Coyne, M -- Dahlke, C -- Mays, A -- Dombroski, M -- Donnelly, M -- Ely, D -- Esparham, S -- Fosler, C -- Gire, H -- Glanowski, S -- Glasser, K -- Glodek, A -- Gorokhov, M -- Graham, K -- Gropman, B -- Harris, M -- Heil, J -- Henderson, S -- Hoover, J -- Jennings, D -- Jordan, C -- Jordan, J -- Kasha, J -- Kagan, L -- Kraft, C -- Levitsky, A -- Lewis, M -- Liu, X -- Lopez, J -- Ma, D -- Majoros, W -- McDaniel, J -- Murphy, S -- Newman, M -- Nguyen, T -- Nguyen, N -- Nodell, M -- Pan, S -- Peck, J -- Peterson, M -- Rowe, W -- Sanders, R -- Scott, J -- Simpson, M -- Smith, T -- Sprague, A -- Stockwell, T -- Turner, R -- Venter, E -- Wang, M -- Wen, M -- Wu, D -- Wu, M -- Xia, A -- Zandieh, A -- Zhu, X -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2001 Feb 16;291(5507):1304-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Celera Genomics, 45 West Gude Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, USA. humangenome@celera.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11181995" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Animals ; Chromosome Banding ; Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial ; Computational Biology ; Consensus Sequence ; CpG Islands ; DNA, Intergenic ; Databases, Factual ; Evolution, Molecular ; Exons ; Female ; Gene Duplication ; Genes ; Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Human ; *Human Genome Project ; Humans ; Introns ; Male ; Phenotype ; Physical Chromosome Mapping ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Pseudogenes ; Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Retroelements ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods ; Species Specificity
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-09-23
    Description: We report a unique, cooperative mechanism that involves the interplay of Ge, Si, and Oxygen interstitials enabling an unusual Ostwald ripening and migration behavior of Ge nanocrystallites and quantum dots (QDs) embedded within a SiO 2 matrix. In the presence of high Si interstitial fluxes with no supply of oxygen interstitials, the oxide surrounding the Ge QDs is decomposed by the Si interstitials, creating the volatile SiO reaction product and hence voids that enable the Ge QDs to grow by Ostwald ripening. When both Si and Oxygen interstitials are present in high concentrations, the Ostwald ripened Ge QD is further able to migrate towards the source of the Si interstitials. The QD movement occurs by virtue of the fact that the SiO created in front of the QD combines with O interstitials to regenerate SiO 2 behind the Ge QD on its migration path. Thus, SiO influences the migration and Ostwald ripening behavior of the Ge QDs via a unique “Destruction-Construction” mechanism.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-11-01
    Description: We report a unique ability to control the sign and size of the stress within Ge nanocrystals or nanodots fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible process within SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 layers. Very large (as much as 4.5%), size-dependent compressive and tensile strains can be generated depending on whether the dot is embedded within either a Si 3 N 4 or a SiO 2 layer. Raman measurements reveal significant anharmonicity for smaller Ge dots and possible distortions of the diamond cubic lattice as evidenced by the measured Grünesien parameters and confirmed by their transmission electron diffraction patterns. Two completely different mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of the tensile and compressive strain states, respectively.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-06-19
    Description: Semiconductor Ge quantum-dot (QD) thermometry has been demonstrated based on extraordinary temperature-dependent oscillatory differential conductance ( G D ) characteristics of Ge-QD single-hole transistors (SHTs) in the few-hole regime. Full-voltage width-at-half-minimum, V 1/2 , of G D valleys appears to be fairly linear in the charge number ( n ) and temperature within the QD in a relationship of eV 1/2  ≅ (1 − 0.11 n ) × 5.15 k B T , providing the primary thermometric quantity. The depth of G D valley is also proportional to charging energy ( E C ) and 1/ T via Δ G D  ≅  E C /9.18 k B T , providing another thermometric quantity. This experimental demonstration suggests our Ge-QD SHT offering effective building blocks for nanothermometers over a wide temperature range with a detection temperature as high as 155 K in a spatial resolution less than 10 nm and temperature accuracy of sub-kelvin.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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