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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-12-15
    Description: Individuals make choices and prioritize goals using complex processes that assign value to rewards and associated stimuli. During Pavlovian learning, previously neutral stimuli that predict rewards can acquire motivational properties, becoming attractive and desirable incentive stimuli. However, whether a cue acts solely as a predictor of reward, or also serves as an incentive stimulus, differs between individuals. Thus, individuals vary in the degree to which cues bias choice and potentially promote maladaptive behaviour. Here we use rats that differ in the incentive motivational properties they attribute to food cues to probe the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in stimulus-reward learning. We show that intact dopamine transmission is not required for all forms of learning in which reward cues become effective predictors. Rather, dopamine acts selectively in a form of stimulus-reward learning in which incentive salience is assigned to reward cues. In individuals with a propensity for this form of learning, reward cues come to powerfully motivate and control behaviour. This work provides insight into the neurobiology of a form of stimulus-reward learning that confers increased susceptibility to disorders of impulse control.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058375/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058375/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Flagel, Shelly B -- Clark, Jeremy J -- Robinson, Terry E -- Mayo, Leah -- Czuj, Alayna -- Willuhn, Ingo -- Akers, Christina A -- Clinton, Sarah M -- Phillips, Paul E M -- Akil, Huda -- 5P01-DA021633-02/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32-DA24540/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P01 DA021633/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P01 DA021633-02/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R00 MH085859/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R00 MH085859-02/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027858/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH079292/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-DA027858/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH079292/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37-DA04294/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32-DA07278/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 6;469(7328):53-7. doi: 10.1038/nature09588. Epub 2010 Dec 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Michigan, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21150898" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Conditioning, Classical/drug effects/physiology ; *Cues ; Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders/physiopathology ; Dopamine/*metabolism ; Dopamine Antagonists/pharmacology ; Flupenthixol/pharmacology ; Food ; Learning/drug effects/*physiology ; Male ; Microelectrodes ; *Models, Neurological ; Motivation/drug effects ; Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism ; Phenotype ; Probability ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; *Reward ; Signal Transduction ; Synaptic Transmission
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-06
    Description: Predictions about future rewarding events have a powerful influence on behaviour. The phasic spike activity of dopamine-containing neurons, and corresponding dopamine transients in the striatum, are thought to underlie these predictions, encoding positive and negative reward prediction errors. However, many behaviours are directed towards distant goals, for which transient signals may fail to provide sustained drive. Here we report an extended mode of reward-predictive dopamine signalling in the striatum that emerged as rats moved towards distant goals. These dopamine signals, which were detected with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), gradually increased or--in rare instances--decreased as the animals navigated mazes to reach remote rewards, rather than having phasic or steady tonic profiles. These dopamine increases (ramps) scaled flexibly with both the distance and size of the rewards. During learning, these dopamine signals showed spatial preferences for goals in different locations and readily changed in magnitude to reflect changing values of the distant rewards. Such prolonged dopamine signalling could provide sustained motivational drive, a control mechanism that may be important for normal behaviour and that can be impaired in a range of neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927840/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927840/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Howe, Mark W -- Tierney, Patrick L -- Sandberg, Stefan G -- Phillips, Paul E M -- Graybiel, Ann M -- R01 AG044839/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027858/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH060379/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH079292/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 29;500(7464):575-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12475. Epub 2013 Aug 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉McGovern Institute for Brain Research and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23913271" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Dopamine/*metabolism ; Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism ; Goals ; Male ; Maze Learning ; Models, Neurological ; Models, Psychological ; Motivation ; Neostriatum/cytology/*metabolism ; Rats ; Rats, Long-Evans ; *Reward ; *Signal Transduction ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-09-21
    Description: Stressors motivate an array of adaptive responses ranging from 'fight or flight' to an internal urgency signal facilitating long-term goals. However, traumatic or chronic uncontrollable stress promotes the onset of major depressive disorder, in which acute stressors lose their motivational properties and are perceived as insurmountable impediments. Consequently, stress-induced depression is a debilitating human condition characterized by an affective shift from engagement of the environment to withdrawal. An emerging neurobiological substrate of depression and associated pathology is the nucleus accumbens, a region with the capacity to mediate a diverse range of stress responses by interfacing limbic, cognitive and motor circuitry. Here we report that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide released in response to acute stressors and other arousing environmental stimuli, acts in the nucleus accumbens of naive mice to increase dopamine release through coactivation of the receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2. Remarkably, severe-stress exposure completely abolished this effect without recovery for at least 90 days. This loss of CRF's capacity to regulate dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens is accompanied by a switch in the reaction to CRF from appetitive to aversive, indicating a diametric change in the emotional response to acute stressors. Thus, the current findings offer a biological substrate for the switch in affect which is central to stress-induced depressive disorders.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3475726/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3475726/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lemos, Julia C -- Wanat, Matthew J -- Smith, Jeffrey S -- Reyes, Beverly A S -- Hollon, Nick G -- Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J -- Chavkin, Charles -- Phillips, Paul E M -- F31 MH086269/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- F31-MH086269/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- F32-DA026273/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- K05 DA020570/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA009082/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA016782/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA030074/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH079292/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-DA009082/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01-DA016782/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01-DA030074/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH079292/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 18;490(7420):402-6. doi: 10.1038/nature11436. Epub 2012 Sep 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22992525" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Appetitive Behavior/drug effects/*physiology ; Avoidance Learning/drug effects/*physiology ; Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Dopamine/metabolism/secretion ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nucleus Accumbens/*metabolism/physiopathology ; Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Stress, Psychological/*metabolism/physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hollon, Nick G -- Phillips, Paul E M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):588-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17314. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry &Behavioral Sciences and the Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Decision Making ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Nucleus Accumbens/*cytology/*metabolism ; Receptors, Dopamine D2/*metabolism ; *Risk Management
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-12-24
    Description: Phasic dopamine transmission is posited to act as a critical teaching signal that updates the stored (or “cached”) values assigned to reward-predictive stimuli and actions. It is widely hypothesized that these cached values determine the selection among multiple courses of action, a premise that has provided a foundation for contemporary...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-07-19
    Description: Calibration is a crucial procedure in electron temperature ( T e ) inference from a typical electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic on tokamaks. Although the calibration provides an important multiplying factor for an individual ECE channel, the parameter Δ T e / T e is independent of any calibration. Since an ECE channel measures the cyclotron emission for a particular flux surface, a non-perturbing change in toroidal magnetic field changes the view of that channel. Hence the calibration-free parameter is a measure of T e gradient. B T -jog technique is presented here which employs the parameter and the raw ECE signals for direct measurement of electron temperature gradient scale length.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-08
    Description: Measurement of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) is one of the primary diagnostics for electron temperature in ITER. In-vessel, in-vacuum, and quasi-optical antennas capture sufficient ECE to achieve large signal to noise with microsecond temporal resolution and high spatial resolution while maintaining polarization fidelity. Two similar systems are required. One views the plasma radially. The other is an oblique view. Both views can be used to measure the electron temperature, while the oblique is also sensitive to non-thermal distortion in the bulk electron distribution. The in-vacuum optics for both systems are subject to degradation as they have a direct view of the ITER plasma and will not be accessible for cleaning or replacement for extended periods. Blackbody radiation sources are provided for in situ calibration.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-05-07
    Description: New experimental observations are reported on the structure and dynamics of short-lived periodic (1, 1) “fishbone”-like oscillations that appear during radio frequency heating and current-drive experiments in tokamak plasmas. For the first time, measurements can directly relate changes in the high energy electrons to the mode onset, saturation, and damping. In the relatively high collisionality of Alcator C-Mod with lower hybrid current drive, the instability appears to be destabilized by the non-resonant suprathermal electron pressure—rather than by wave-particle resonance, rotates toroidally with the plasma and grows independently of the (1, 1) sawtooth crash driven by the thermal plasma pressure.
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The energy distributions of ions and electrons in the scrape-off layer of TEXT are measured with a bidirectional retarding field analyzer (RFA). The probe provides simultaneous measurements parallel and antiparallel to the plasma current. Large asymmetries in this direction in the flux and temperature that were found with the RFA appear partly due to differences in the connection lengths Lc. The measurements from the analyzer are compared with the results of a simple edge model to infer the edge particle diffusion coefficient. While the measurements are consistent with the model for longer connection lengths (∼10 m in TEXT-U), the agreement deteriorates for shorter Lc. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A magnetic pickup coil diagnostic set is used to measure the position of the plasma column in the Texas Experimental Tokamak Upgrade (TEXT-U) project. The output from this coil set is used in a digital feedback system to control the plasma position. To provide a fast time response for the feedback system, one complete coil set is located on the interior of the vacuum vessel. Another set with a slower time response is located on the outside of the vessel. To simplify and speed up data processing, the coils are constructed so that the X and Y coordinates of the plasma current centroid are each determined using the signals from only two separate coils. For each coordinate one coil is used to measure a tangential (relative to the coil surface) magnetic field component, while the second coil measures a normal field component. Due to physical constraints, the coils are not continuous around the vacuum vessel. The presence of gaps in the coils causes pickup of the external current flowing in the divertor coil windings during TEXT-U diverted discharges. This pickup has been successfully nulled out by adding a divertor current Rogowski coil to the X position coil circuit. The data indicate that these coils, along with the digital feedback system, are useful tools for flexible position control over a wide range of TEXT-U plasma parameters. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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