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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2010-01-13
    Description: SUMMARYSunflower oil, with more than 0·9 of tocopherols in the alpha-tocopherol form, supplies more vitamin E than any other vegetable oil. Thus far, no breeding to increase vitamin E levels in sunflower seeds has been conducted. The objective of the present research was to develop sunflower lines with high and low total seed tocopherol content through evaluation and subsequent selection of a large germplasm collection (952 sunflower entries). A range of variation from 119 to 491 mg/kg was found. Selection conducted from S1 to S4 plant generations allowed the isolation of line IAST-413, with an increased tocopherol content of 467 mg/kg compared to 251 mg/kg in the control line HA89, and line IAST-522, with a reduced tocopherol content of 73 mg/kg. Another accession with potentially high tocopherol content, but completely self-incompatible, was crossed to the line HA89 followed by plant-to-row selection up to the F5 plant generation; it averaged 463 mg/kg compared to 240 mg/kg in HA89. Two field experiments carried out at Córdoba in southern Spain in 2006 and 2007 with different sowing dates confirmed that the increased tocopherol content in the selected lines was consistently expressed across environments.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8596
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5146
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Sunflower ; Helianthus annuus ; High palmitic acid ; High stearic acid ; Epistatic interaction ; Inheritance ; Oil quality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutants with high concentrations of saturated fatty acids in their seed oil have been identified and studied extensively. The mutant line CAS-5 has high concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) (〉25% compared with 7% in standard sunflower seed oil) and low-C18:0 values (3%). CAS-3 is characterized by its high levels of stearic acid (C18:0) (〉22% compared with 4% in standard sunflower seed oil) and a low-C16:0 content (5%). CAS-5 also possesses elevated levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) (〉5%), which is absent in standard sunflower seed oil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between the loci controlling the high-C16:0 and the high-C18:0 traits in these mutants. Plants of both mutants were reciprocally crossed. Gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acids from the seed oil of F1, F2, F3 and the BC1F1 to CAS-5 generations indicated that the loci controlling the high-C16:0 trait exerted an epistatic effect over the loci responsible for the high-C18:0 character. As a result, the phenotypic combination containing both the high-C16:0 levels of CAS-5 and the high-C18:0 levels of CAS-3 was not possible. However, phenotypes with a saturated fatty acid content of 44% (34.5% C16:0+9.5% C18:0) were identified in the F3 generation. These are the highest saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) levels reported so far in sunflower seed oil. When F3 C16:0 segregating generations in both a high- and a low-C18:0 background were compared, the high-C16:1 levels were not expressed as expected in the high-C18:0 background (CAS-3 background). In this case, the C16:1 content decreased to values below 1.5%, compared with 〉5% in a low-C18:0 background. As the stearoyl-ACP desaturase has been reported to catalyze the desaturation from C16:0-ACP to C16:1-ACP, these results suggested that a decrease in its activity was involved in the accumulation of C18:0 in the high-C18:0 mutant CAS-3.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Helianthus annuus ; Sunflower mutant ; Stearic acid ; Oil quality ; Genetic control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A sunflower mutant, CAS-3, with about 25% stearic acid (C18:0) in the seed oil was recently isolated after a chemical-mutagen treatment of RDF-1-532 seeds (8% C18:0). To study the inheritance of the high C18:0 content, CAS-3 was reciprocally crossed to RDF-1–532 and HA-89 (5% C18:0). Significant reciprocal-cross differences were found in one of the two crosses, indicating possible maternal effects. In the CAS-3 and RDF-1–532 crosses, the segregation patterns of the F1, BC1, and F2 populations fitted a one-locus (designated Es1) model with two alleles (Es1, es1) and with partial dominance of low over high C18:0 content. Segregation patterns in the CAS-3 and HA-89 crosses indicated the presence of a second independent locus (designated Es2) with two alleles (Es2, es2), also with partial dominance of low over high C18:0 content. From these results, the proposed genotypes (C18:0 content) of each parent were as follows: CAS-3 (25.0% C18:0) =es1es1es2es2; RDF-1–532 (8.0% C18:0) =Es1Es1es2es2; and HA-89 (4.6% C18:0) =Es1Es1Es2Es2. The relationship between the proposed genotypes and their C18:0 content indicates that the Es1 locus has a greater effect on the C18:0 content than the Es2 locus. Apparently, the mutagenic treatment caused a mutation of Es1 to es1 in RDF-1–532.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Helianthus annuus ; Sunflower mutant ; Palmitic acid ; Inheritance ; Fatty acid composition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Sunflower genotypes with increased levels of palmitic acid (C16 : 0) in the seed oil could be useful for food and industrial applications. The objective of the present study was to determine the inheritance of the high C16 : 0 content in the sunflower mutant line CAS-5 (〉25% of the total oil fatty acids). This mutant was reciprocally crossed with the lines HA-89 (5.7% C16 : 0) and BSD-2-691 (5.4% C16 : 0), the latter being the parental line from which CAS-5 was isolated. No maternal effect for the C16 : 0 content was observed from the analysis of F1 seeds in any of the crosses. The inheritance study of the C16 : 0 content in F1, F2 and BC1F1 seeds from the crosses of CAS-5 with its parental line BSD-2-691 indicated that the segregation fitted a model of two alleles at one locus with partial dominance for the low content. The analysis of the fatty acid composition in the F2 populations from the crosses with HA-89 revealed a segregation fitting a ratio 19 : 38 : 7 for low (〈7.5%), middle (7.5–15%), and high (〉25%) C16 : 0 content, respectively. This segregation was explained on the basis of three loci (P1, P2, P3) each having two alleles showing partial dominance for low content. The genotypes with a high C16 : 0 content were homozygous for the recessive allele p1 and for at least one of the other two recessive alleles, p2 or p3. This model was further confirmed with the analysis of the F3 and the BC1F1 generations. It was concluded that both the recessive alleles p2 and p3 were already present in the BSD-2-691 line, the allele p1 being the result of a mutation from P1. This genetic study will facilitate breeding strategies associated with the incorporation of the high C16 : 0 trait into agronomically acceptable sunflower hybrids.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds have a tocopherol fraction dominated by α-tocopherol, which accounts for more than 95% of the tocopherols. α-Tocopherol exerts a high vitamin E activity, but a low in vitro antioxidant action. For non-food applications, replacement of high α-tocopherol by γ-tocopherol is preferred. Because of the limited variability found in germplasm of cultivated safflower, the objective of the present research was to search for variability for tocopherol profile in germplasm of wild safflower species. Bulk seed samples of 77 accessions from six species were analysed for total tocopherol content and profile. One accession of C. oxyacanthus showed increased γ-tocopherol content (36%). Single-seed analysis showed the existence of a bimodal distribution, which included high α-tocopherol (〉90%) and high γ-tocopherol (HGT) seeds (〉85%). Plants from the HGT seeds bred true for the trait and showed introgression of cultivated safflower, which allowed a rapid selection for cultivated safflower traits. Genetic analysis revealed that the HGT trait was controlled by partially recessive alleles at a single locus Tph1, which will facilitate the transference of the novel trait to diverse safflower germplasms.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: α-Tocopherol is the main tocopherol in sunflower seeds (〉90%). Because it exerts a weak antioxidant action in vitro, its partial replacement by other tocopherols is an important breeding objective in this crop. The objective of this research was to develop novel tocopherol profiles in sunflower through mutagenesis and genetic recombination. Seeds of four ‘Peredovik’ accessions were used for chemical mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Single-seed screening in the M2 generation resulted in two M2 seeds, derived from different M1 plants, with increased γ-tocopherol contents of 19.2% and 96.7%, respectively. M3 progeny from the M2 seed with the 96.7% content bred true for high c-tocopherol content, containing more than 90%γ-tocopherol. M3 progeny from the M2 seed with only 19.2%γ-tocopherol segregated in a range from 0 to 84.6%. Selection for high c-tocopherol content produced an M4:5 line, designated IAST-1, with a stable high concentration of γ-tocopherol. Crosses between IAST-1 and T589, with an increased b-tocopherol content, produced F2 segregants with trans-gressive levels of up to 77%β-tocopherol or up to 68% d-tocopherol. Both novel tocopherol profiles were confirmed in the F3 generation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The dwarf safflower mutant ‘Enana’ has been developed from the cultivar ‘Rancho’ by chemical mutagenesis. The objective of the present research was to study the inheritance of plant height in crosses between ‘Enana’ and ‘Rancho’. Plants of both lines were reciprocally crossed and the F1, F2 and F3 generations were obtained. The evaluation of plant height in the F2 generation suggested the presence of a single locus controlling this trait. This was confirmed after the evaluation of 164 F2:3 lines, which revealed an F2 segregation fitting a 1:2:1 (dwarf: intermediate: standard) ratio. The locus was designated Dw. As the mutated allele was partly dominant over the wild-type allele, the proposed genotype for ‘Rancho’ was dw dw, whereas that for ‘Enana’ was Dw Dw. Furthermore, a partial cytoplasmic effect on plant height was detected, with the heterozygote Dw dw being about 6 cm taller when ‘Rancho’ was used as female.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The objective of the present research was to study the inheritance of reduced plant height in the sunflower line Dw 89. Plants of the cytoplasmic male sterile version of this line, cmsDw 89 (mean plant height of 47.4 cm) were crossed with plants of the restorer line RHA 271 (mean of 120.9 cm). F1 plants averaged 120.4 cm, which indicated dominance of standard over reduced plant height. F2 plants followed a segregation pattern of 1 : 15 (reduced : normal height), suggesting that reduced plant height in Dw 89 is controlled by alleles at two loci, designated Dw1 and Dw2. Class assignment in the F2 was confirmed through the evaluation of the F3 generation. Backcrosses to Dw 89 segregated with 1 : 3 (reduced : normal height) ratios, which confirmed the digenic inheritance of the trait. The evaluation of plant height distributions in F3 families suggested possible genetic interaction between the Dw1 and Dw2 loci.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1439-0523
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: CAS-12 is a sunflower mutant with increased levels of palmitic (C16: 0 = 30%) and oleic (C18: 1 = 55%) acids in its seed oil, hence it has a reduced linoleic acid content (C18: 2 〈 5%). This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of high C16: 0 content and its relationship with high C18: 1 content in CAS-12. Reciprocal crosses involving CAS-12, CAS-5 (high C16: 0 content), HAOL-9 (high C18: 1 content) and HA-89 (standard fatty acid profile) were made. The F1, F2 and BC1F1 generations were obtained. The genetic control of the high C16: 0 trait in CAS-12 was partially recessive and gametophytic. In all cases, this character segregated in the ratio 19: 38: 7 (low: intermediate: high C16: 0 content) in the F2 generation. These results, together with the lack of segregation for C16: 0 content in crosses between CAS-12 and CAS-5, indicated that the genetic control of the high C16: 0 trait in CAS-12 was similar to that in CAS-5 in being controlled by partially recessive alleles (p1, p2, and p3) at three loci. Crosses between HA-89 and CAS-12, and HAOL-9 and CAS-5 (segregating for C16: 0 and C18: 1) demonstrated that the high C16: 0 and the high C18: 1 traits were independently inherited. However, C18: 1 segregation in these crosses exhibited reversal of dominance. Apparently, the low C18: 1 parental lines carried modifier genes causing the deviation.
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