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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) is a Probe instrument designed to measure the chemical and isotopic composition including vertical variations of the constituents in the atmosphere of Jupiter. The measurement will be performed by in situ sampling of the ambient atmosphere in the pressure range from approximately 150 mbar to 20 bar. In addition batch sampling will be performed for noble gas composition measurement and isotopic ratio determination and for sensitivity enhancement of non-reactive trace gases. The instrument consists of a gas sampling system which is connected to a quadrupole mass analyzer for molecular weight analysis. In addition two sample enrichment cells and one noble gas analysis cell are part of the sampling system. The mass range of the quadrupole analyzer is from 2 amu to 150 amu. The maximum dynamic range is 108. The detector threshold ranges from 10 ppmv for H2O to 1 ppbv for Kr and Xe. It is dependent on instrument background and ambient gas composition because of spectral interference. The threshold values are lowered through sample enrichment by a factor of 100 to 500 for stable hydrocarbons and by a factor of 10 for noble gases. The gas sampling system and the mass analyzer are sealed and evacuated until the measurement sequence is initiated after the Probe enters into the atmosphere of Jupiter. The instrument weighs 13.2 kg and the average power consumption is 13 W. The instrument follows a sampling sequence of 8192 steps and a sampling rate of two steps per second. The measurement period lasts appropriately 60 min through the nominal pressure and altitude range.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9478
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper is the entire report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites, including three annexes. Tables give the recemmended values for the directions of the north poles of rotation and the prime meridians of the planets and satellites. Reference surfaces for mapping these bodies are described. The annexes discuss the guiding principles, given in the body of the report, present explanatory notes, and provide a bibliography of the rotational elements and reference surfaces of the planets and satellites, definitions, and algebraic expressions of relevant parameters.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0794
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One of the methods to quantitateLeishmania major promastigotes (LmP) has been to utilize the formation of a formazan dye, which in turn is produced via conversion of an artificial substrate, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The method has one major drawback in that the formazan complex precipitates inside the parasites and has to be extracted by denaturants before measurements can be performed. By using a new synthetic substrate, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfonyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), the extraction procedure is eliminated as the formazan-like dye is released spontaneously into the medium, making it possible to perform several measurements on the same parasite culture without disturbing or killing the parasites. The measurements were shown to reflect the numbers of parasites as confirmed via comparative experiments using radioactive thymidine uptake and cell counting, respectively. The method is simple, fast, and highly reproducible and is suitable for drug screening, identification of drug-resistant isolates, and growth-kinetics studies. It is therefore contemplated that the MTS method will be a general and useful technique in this field of parasitology.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The overall objective of this experiment is exploratory reconnaissance of Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites, and Saturn's rings. Such reconnaissance, at resolutions and phase angles unobtainable from Earth, can be expected to provide much new data relevant to the atmospheric and/or surface properties of these bodies. The experiment also has the following specific objectives: Observe and characterize the global circulation of the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn; Determine the horizontal and vertical structure of the visible clouds and establish their relationship to the belted appearance and dynamical properties of the planetary atmospheres; Determine the vertical structure of high, optically-thin, scattering layers on Jupiter and Saturn; Determine the nature of anomalous features such as the Great Red Spot, South Equatorial Belt disturbances, etc.; Characterize the nature of the colored material in the clouds of Jupiter and Saturn, and identify the nature and sources of chromophores on Io and Titan; Perform comparative geologic studies of many satellites at less than 15-km resolution; Map and characterize the geologic structure of several satellites at high resolution (∼1 km); Investigate the existence and nature of atmospheres on the satellites; Determine the mass, size, and shape of many of the satellites by direct measurement; Determine the direction of the spin axes and periods of rotation of several satellites, and establish coordinate systems for the larger satellites; Map the radial distribution of material in Saturn's rings at high resolution; Determine the optical scattering properties of the primaries, rings, and satellites at several wavelengths and phase angles; Search for novel physical phenomena, e.g., phenomena associated with the Io flux tube, meteors, aurorae, lightning, or satellite shadows.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Saturn's largest moon, Titan, remains an enigma, explored only by remote sensing from Earth, and by the Voyager and Cassini spacecraft. The most puzzling aspects include the origin of the molecular nitrogen and methane in its atmosphere, and the mechanism(s) by which methane is maintained in ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IUE PROVIDES an excellent way for acquiring UV spectra in the wavelength region shortwards of the Earth's ozone cutoff (about 3,100 Å). The UV vidicons, when properly erased and prepared for use, can be exposed for several hours on very weak planetary emissions. This integration time, and the ...
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: We present a new spectrum of the Centaur object 5145 Pholus between 1.15 and 2.4 micro meters. We model this, and the previously published (0.4- to 1.0- micrometer) spectrum, using Hapke scattering theory. Seen in absorption are the 2.04- micrometer band of H2O ice and a strong band at 2.27 micrometer, interpreted as frozen methanol and/or a photolytic product of methanol having small molecular weight. The presence of small molecules is indicative of a chemically primitive surface, since heating and other processes remove the light hydrocarbons in favor of macromolecular carbon of the kind found in carbonaceous meteorites. The unusually red slope of Pholus' spectrum is matched by fine grains of a refractory organic solid (tholin). Olivine (which we model with Fo 82) also appears to be present on Pholus. We present a five-component model for the composite spectrum of all spectroscopic and photometric data available for 5145 Pholus and conclude that this is a primitive object which has not yet been substantially processed by solar heat. The properties of Pholus are those of the nucleus of a large comet that has never been active.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: ICARUS: Article IS985997 (ISSN 0019-1035); Volume 135; 389-407
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: It is shown that N2 may be present in the troposphere of Neptune in an amount difficult to evaluate but which could easily be as high as 0.003, while there is no evidence that it is present in the atmosphere of Uranus. The estimate of the helium abundance depends on the assumed value for N2. If there is no N2 in the observed region of the atmosphere of Uranus and an N2 mole fraction of 0.003 on Neptune, the central value of the estimates of the helium abundance are equal to 0.26 by mass in both planets, which is close to the protosolar value of 0.28. This would imply that the He/H2 ratios measured in the outer atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are representative of the ratio in the primitive solar nebula and thus were not modified during planetary formation.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 101; 1; p. 168-171.
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The chemical and isotopic composition of the Jupiter atmosphere's constituents, including their vertical variations, will be measured by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer instrument through in situ sampling; batch sampling will also be undertaken for noble gas composition and isotopic ratio determinations. The instrument's gas-sampling system is connected to a quadrupole mass analyzer for molecular weight analysis. Threshold values are lowered through sample enrichment by a factor of 100-500 for stable hydrocarbons and by a factor of 10 for noble gases. The instrument follows a sampling sequence of 8192 steps, at a rate of 2 steps/sec.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: Space Science Reviews (ISSN 0038-6308); 60; 1-4,
    Format: text
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