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  • 1
    Call number: MOP 17214
    In: Monograph
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 80 S. : graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: Monograph / Royal Society of New South Wales 1
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: MOP Per 807(32)
    In: Precipitation Enhancement Project report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 67 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Precipitation Enhancement Project report 32
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A one-dimensional, time-dependent numerical cloud model is used to analyze the factors in the dynamic and thermodynamic equations which lead to a steady-state or nonsteady-state solution for the cloud vertical motion, buoyancy, precipitation, and cloud water fields. ‘Bulk water’ microphysical techniques are used for the cloud, rain, and hail variables. An atmospheric sounding from a severe storm situation is used as initial and environmental conditions, yielding model updrafts of 40 m sec−1 maximum and more than 10 m sec−1 over the entire cloud region. ‘Early conversion’ of the cloud water to rain leads to loading of lower portions of the updraft by rain, the formation of appreciable amounts of hail by freezing of the supercooled rain, and subsequent loading of the middle and upper portions of the updraft so that the updraft erodes throughout the cloud depth and the cloud dissipates, yielding a vigorous rain shower. A delay in the conversion of the cloud water to rain results in a steady-state solution, no rain or hail falling through the updraft. A two-dimensional cloud simulation of this same case shows rain and hail in the upper cloud regions recycled in the two-dimensional flow into the updraft near cloud base and a breakdown of the updraft with resultant rainout (negligible hail reaching the ground). The breakdown of the updraft has profound effects on the temperature field within the cloud, causing the lapse rate to deviate from the steady-state condition and approach the initial environmental conditions. The results emphasize the fact that the local change in temperature (and other dependent variables as well) is not independent of the vertical velocity, in general. This has implications for the interpretation of measurements made within clouds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The effects on microbursts of precipitation loading, and cooling of the downdraft due to graupel/hail melting and rain evaporation, were studied, using numerical models. The results for the microburst index indicate a low value for the weak microburst and a higher value for the strong microburst. The relative magnitude of the various terms indicate the importance of the microphysical processes. For the dry microburst the evaporation and loading effects are comparable (1.56 and 1.75 respectively) but 5 to 6 times the magnitude of the melting effect. For a wet, tropical microburst, the loading and melting terms are most important. The intermediate Denver case shows loading as the largest term, followed by evaporation and melting.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Deutscher Wetterdienst, Annals from the German Meteorological Society. No. 25: 10th International Cloud Physics Conference Preprints, Volume 2; p 675-677
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A two dimensional time dependent finite difference grid cloud model is discussed. The model simulates atmospheric motions, potential temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid, cloud ice, rain and small hail. Lateral boundary conditions are open allowing flow in and out of the model domain. Various amounts of convergence were simulated to test the effects on cloud initiation and development. Soundings were run and results discussed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA(MSFC FY-84 Atmospheric Processes Res. Rev.; p 183-184
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary This paper is concerned with the simulation of deep convection for the CCOPE 19 July 1981 case study. Clark's three-dimensional (3D) cloud model modified to use the bulk water parameterization scheme of Lin et al. has been used in the simulation of the CCOPE 19 July 1981 case in coarse mesh, fine mesh, and interactive grid nested schemes, respectively. Comparisons with observations show this 3D grid nested cloud model is capable of both capturing both the dynamic and microphysical properties of the cloud. In the nested grid fine mesh model simulation, the timing and mode of cloud growth, the diameter of liquid cloud, the cloud top rate of rise, the maximum cloud water content, and the altitude of first radar echo are consistent with observations. The simulated thunderstorm begins to dissipate, after precipitation reaches the ground as indicated by the decreasing values of maximum updraft and maximum liquid cloud water content, and ends as a precipitating anvil as was observed in the actual thunderstorm. The model precipitation developed through ice phase processes consistent with the analysis of observations from the actual thunderstorm. Qualitative comparisons of the actual radar RHIs with simulated reflectively patterns from the 3D model show remarkable similarity, especially after the mature stage is reached. Features of the actual RHI patterns, such as the weak echo region, upshear anvil bulge, strong upwind reflectivity gradients, and the upwind outflow region near the surface are reproduced in the simulation. Comparison of the actual radar PPIs with horizontal cross sections of radar reflectivity simulated by the 3D model, however, show modest differences in the storm size with the 3D simulated thunderstorm being 1–2 km longer in the west-east direction than the actual thunderstorm. The model-predicted maximum updraft speed is smaller than the 2D model-predicted maximum updraft speed, but still greater than what was observed. Comparisons among the nested grid fine mesh model (MB), nested grid coarse mesh model (MA), fine mesh model (FM), coarse mesh model (CM), and 2D model results previously published show that the nested grid fine mesh model (MB) gives the best simulation result. The various 3D model simulation results are generally similar to each other except for the difference in the domain maximum values. The domain maximum values in the fine mesh models (MB and FM) are generally higher than the coarse mesh models as a result of averaging over a smaller area.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: NASA. Washington Proc. of Conf. on Waste Heat Mangement and Util., Vol. 3; 15 p
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Several atmospheric soundings have been used as initial conditions in the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences' two-dimensional, time-dependent cloud model and resulted in a wide range of microbursts, some very wet and some nearly dry. Observations confirm the occurrence of at least three of the microbursts and give good comparisons of the intensity, upper-level convergence, downdraft, and other microburst characteristics. The effects of the liquid and ice microphysics are examined quantitatively. Precipitation loading, graupel/hail melting, and rain evaporation are all shown to be important. Evaporation and milting are, in general, the most dominant effects.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Atmospheric Research (ISSN 0169-8095); 24; 343-357
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Radar observations and model results are used to investigate the microphysical evolution of an isolated, intense storm observed on July 20, 1988 during the Microburst and Severe Thunderstorm experiment. The storm grew to a height of 14 km and upon collapsing, produced heavy rain, pea-sized hail, and a microburst at the surface. The radar observations indicate that the initial precipitation development was by collision-coalescence. As the storm intensified, accretional growth became dominant leading to rapid precipitation development. Radar-derived rainfall rates peaked around 150 to 190 mm/h. Each morning during the experiment, a two-dimensional, time-dependent cloud model, initialized with the morning sounding, was run. The model results from the July 20 sounding are compared to the radar observations. Good agreement is shown in some aspects of the storm development, although the numerical simulation predicted a more vigorous storm than actually developed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (ISSN 0022-4928); 46; 601-620
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1975-12-01
    Description: A one-dimensional, time-dependent numerical cloud model is used to analyze the factors in the dynamic and thermodynamic equations which lead to a steady-state or nonsteady-state solution for the cloud vertical motion, buoyancy, precipitation, and cloud water fields. ‘Bulk water’ microphysical techniques are used for the cloud, rain, and hail variables. An atmospheric sounding from a severe storm situation is used as initial and environmental conditions, yielding model updrafts of 40 m sec−1 maximum and more than 10 m sec−1 over the entire cloud region. ‘Early conversion’ of the cloud water to rain leads to loading of lower portions of the updraft by rain, the formation of appreciable amounts of hail by freezing of the supercooled rain, and subsequent loading of the middle and upper portions of the updraft so that the updraft erodes throughout the cloud depth and the cloud dissipates, yielding a vigorous rain shower. A delay in the conversion of the cloud water to rain results in a steady-state solution, no rain or hail falling through the updraft. A two-dimensional cloud simulation of this same case shows rain and hail in the upper cloud regions recycled in the two-dimensional flow into the updraft near cloud base and a breakdown of the updraft with resultant rainout (negligible hail reaching the ground). The breakdown of the updraft has profound effects on the temperature field within the cloud, causing the lapse rate to deviate from the steady-state condition and approach the initial environmental conditions. The results emphasize the fact that the local change in temperature (and other dependent variables as well) is not independent of the vertical velocity, in general. This has implications for the interpretation of measurements made within clouds. ©1975 Birkhäuser Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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