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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Recent experimental observations and results are discussed. It was found that the approximately 50 antiprotons collected in balloon experiments to date have generated considerable theoretical interest. Clearly, confirmatory experiments and measurements over an extended energy range are required before definite conclusions are drawn. Antiproton measurements have a bearing on astrophysical problems ranging from cosmic ray propagation to issues of cosmological import. The next generation of balloon experiments and the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility being discussed for operation on NASA's space station should provide data and insights of highest interest.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: Essays in Space Science; p 155-172
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The energy dependence of the mean escape length of cosmic rays from the galaxy in the light of recent measurements of cosmic ray abundances from the Danish-French experiment on HEAO-3 is re-examined. The energy dependence is found to be steeper than previously thought.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:84964 , NASA-TM-84964
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Element abundances of cosmic rays Li through Si with energy above 0.8 GeV/amu were measured on a balloon borne instrument containing a total absorption ionization spectrometer. Statistical techniques were used to analyze the five measurements of each particle to determine its charge and energy. The technique allows a determination of systematic errors to be made. Corrections for Landau fluctuations, spark chamber inefficiency, and background particles were included. Comparison with other published results is made. Differences in the shape of the spectrum determined from measurements of different workers indicate that the absolute intensity is still known to only plus or minus 15% between 2 and 10 GV/c rigidity.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-661-74-335 , NASA-TM-X-70802
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A balloon borne measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum from 10 to 200 GeV is reported in which two new techniques have been used to remove proton background contamination. First, the depth of the spectrometer was more than 25 radiation lengths, the equivalent of more than 2 mean free paths of material, enabling hadronically and electromagnetically induced cascades to be differentiated for a subset of the data. Second, electromagnetic cascade starting points were determined to within + or - 0.1 radiation lengths based upon a calibration with electrons from 5.4 to 18 GeV at the Stanford Linear Accelerator, greatly reducing the chances for a proton to simulate an electron. The resulting spectrum, when fitted with a power law, is quite steep, -3.2 + or - 0.1, but the chi-square fit is marginal. A significantly better fit is achieved assuming a transition region model in which the source spectral index is 2.7 with a break occurring at about 50 GeV.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: X-664-73-30 , NASA-TM-X-66182
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Differential energy spectra of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei were measured by an ionization spectrometer flown at balloon altitudes. The energy range extended from 50 GeV to above 1000 GeV. The observed differential intensities can be represented with power law spectra with a slope of -2.75 + or - 0.03 for protons and of -2.77 + or - 0.55 for helium nuclei. The proton to helium ratio is equal to 26 + or - 3 at 40 GeV/nuc and is constant within errors up to 400 GeV/nuc.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-65850 , X-661-72-66
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: For abstract see A81-43868.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NAS 1.15:82070 , NASA-TM-82070
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results obtained from a high altitude balloon flight from Thompson, Canada in August, 1973 are reported. The instrument consisted of a spark chamber, a Lucite Gerenkov counter and thirteen layers of scintillators. For heavy particles the Cerenkov-range method of analysis was used to determine the mass of particles energetic enough to produce a Cerenkov signal and then stop in the layered scintillators. The data appear to be consistent with current cosmic-ray propagation models. Using a simple exponential path length propagation model this data is extrapolated to the cosmic-ray source and some implications of the data are discussed as to the nature of the source.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71019 , X-661-75-278
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: It is suggested that a ring of HI gas lying in the galactic plane is part of a supershell which formed some 3 x to the 7th power years ago. The consequences of a closed magnetic supershell for cosmic ray propagation are examined and it is concluded that there is no evidence which precludes the production and trapping of cosmic rays in such a region. A consequence of superbubble confinement is that the mean age of cosmic rays would be independent of energy. This can be tested by high energy observations of the isotopic composition of Be.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-85030 , NAS 1.15:85030
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results from a balloon-borne gas Cherenkov counter (threshold 16.5 GeV/nucleon) and an ionization spectrometer are presented. The gas Cherenkov counter provides an absolute energy distribution for the response of the calorimeter for 5 or = Z 26 nuclei of cosmic rays. The contribution of scintillation to the gas Cherenkov pulse height was obtained by independently selecting particles below the gas Cherenkov threshold using the ionization spectrometer. Energy spectra were derived by minimizing the chi squared between Monte Carlo simulted data and flight data. Best fit power laws, dN/dE = AE-gamma, were determined for C, N, O, Ne, Mg, and Si. The power laws, all consistent with E (-2.7) are not good fits to the data. A better fit is obtained using the spectrum derived from the spectrometer. The data from the ionization calorimeter and the gas Cherenkov are thus completely self-consistent.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA-TM-80639
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-08-10
    Description: This paper describes the design and performance studies of the scintillator tile detectors for the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), scheduled for launch in early 2008. The scintillator tile detectors utilize wavelength shifting fibers and have dual photomultiplier tube (PMT) readout. The design requires highly efficient and uniform detection of singly charged relativistic particles over the tile area and must meet all requirements for a launch, as well as operation in a space environment. We present here the design of three basic types of tiles used in the ACD, ranging in size from approx.450 sq cm to approx.2500 sq cm, all 1 cm thick, with different shapes, and with photoelectron yield of approx. 20 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle (mip) at normal tile incidence, uniform over the tile area. Some tiles require flexible clear fiber cables up to 1.5 m long to deliver scintillator light to remotely located PMT.
    Keywords: Astronomy
    Type: Meeting held on Oct. 1-5, 2007 in Moscow, Russia. To appear in the Journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods, Elsevier
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