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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: Branch cross-sectional area ; Leaf area ; Leaf biomass ; Picea abies ; Sapwood area
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The relationship of leaf biomass and leaf area to the conductive area of stems and branches was investigated in Picea abies. A total of 30 trees were harvested to determine if these relationships were different in different crown zones and in trees growing with and without competition for light. Two methods were compared. In the first, data were accumulated from crown zones situated at the top of trees to the bottom; in the second, data were used from individual crown zones. The results indicated that the latter method is much more sensitive in detecting differences in the relationship of leaf biomass or leaf area to conductive area. The analysis also indicated that ratios such as leaf area/sapwood area are frequently size-dependent. This size-dependency can in some cases result in the differences being abscured, but more often leads to the false impression that the relationship between the variables changes. The relationship between leaf biomass and leaf area and conductive area of stems or branches was different in different crown zones and under different growth conditions. The slopes of these regressions appear to increase with decreasing transpirational demand and decrease with increasing hydraulic conductivity. The intercepts are probably related to the amount of identified sapwood actually involved in water conductance.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2285
    Keywords: P/V curve ; Picea abies ; Aerial uptake ; Bark permeability ; Mass flow
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Uptake of water and magnesium chloride solution was investigated through the outer surface of twigs of Picea abies (L.) Karst. Water uptake was determined by using pressure/volume (P/V) curves of the twigs as a basis for calculation to avoid problems of superficial extraneous water. When water was sprayed on bark and needles of 3- to 7-year-old twigs at a xylem water potential of -1.00 MPa, they absorbed as much as 80 mm3 water in 200 min/g twig dry weight as the twig water potential recovered to -0.15 MPa. With fluorescent dyes, pathways for absorption of water and solutes through the twig bark were found, particularly through the radially orientated ray tissue. In addition to uptake by mass flow, magnesium could also diffuse along a concentration gradient from the twig surface into the xylem. In the field, the magnitude of these uptake processes would depend on the concentration of elements deposited by atmospheric precipitation, the concentration gradient between the plant surface and the xylem sap, the xylem water potential and the intensity and duration of each precipitation event.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Tree canopy microclimate, xylem water flux and xylem dielectric constant have been monitored in situ since June 1993 in two adjacent natural forest stands in central Alaska. The deciduous stand represents a mature balsam poplar site on the Tanana River floodplain, while the coniferous stand consists of mature white spruce with some black spruce mixed in. During solstice in June and later in summer, diurnal changes of xylem water potential were measured to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of tree transpiration and dielectric constant changes in stems.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Two major forest types in the upper Amazonian headwater region are floodplain and upland (terra firme) forests.
    Type: German Botanical Congress; Bayreuth; Germany
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Description: Vegetation maps of inaccessible areas in the tropics tend to divide vegetation into broad types.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: German Botanical Congress; Bayreuth; Germany
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    Keywords: Key words Capacitance ; Time lag ; Transpiration ; Xylem sap flux
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  Using constant heat sap flow sensors, xylem water fluxes in ten tree species and two liana species were monitored for 5–10 days during the beginning of the wet season in May, 1993. For a subset of the trees, a branch was also monitored at the top of the crown for 5 days. Xylem flux (J S) was related diurnally in all plants to vapor pressure deficit (D) measured within the upper-third of the canopy, and to incoming shortwave radiation R S above the canopy. Cross-correlation analysis was used to estimate time lags between diurnal patterns of J S and D or R S, and between J S in stems and branches. The maximum correlation coefficient from cross-correlation of J S with R S (range=0.57–0.92) was often higher than the maximum of J S with D (range=0.43–0.89), indicating that diurnal J S was more dependent on R S than D. Time lags (lag corresponding to maximum correlation) of J S at stem-base with D was shorter (0–45 min) than with radiation (5–115 min), highly variable within a species, and uncorrelated to the height or exposure of tree crowns or liana in the canopy. On a stand level, not accounting for the diel lag between stem sap flux and canopy flux resulted in errors in estimated canopy transpiration of up to 30%.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0931-1890
    Keywords: Key words Tree transpiration ; Hydraulic resistance ; Hydraulic capacitance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract  The use of stem sap flow data to estimate diurnal whole-tree transpiration and canopy stomatal conductance depends critically upon knowledge of the time lag between transpiration and water flux through the stem. In this study, the time constant for water movement in stems of 12-year-old Pinus taeda L. individuals was estimated from analysis of time series data of stem water flux and canopy transpiration computed from mean daytime canopy conductance, and diurnal vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation measurements. Water uptake through stems was measured using a constant-heat sapflow probe. Canopy transpiration was correlated to stem uptake using a resistance-capacitance equation that incorporates a time constant parameter. A least-squares auto-regression determined the parameters of the resistance-capacitance equation. The time constants for ten loblolly pine trees averaged 48.0 (SE = 2.0) min and the time lag for the diurnal frequency averaged 47.0 (SE = 2.0) min. A direct-cross correlation analysis between canopy transpiration and sap flow time series showed maximum correlation at an approximately 30 min lag. Residuals (model-predicted minus actual stem flow data) increased with increasing soil moisture depletion. While the time constants did not vary significantly within the range of tree sizes studied, hydraulic resistance and capacitance terms were individually dependent on stem cross-sectional area: capacitance increased and resistance decreased with stem volume. This result may indicate an inverse adjustment of resistance and capacitance to maintain a similar time constant over the range of tree sizes studied.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Forest floor CO2 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured continuously with soil chambers connected to an IRGA during 2001–2002. At both sites, Fff depended on soil temperature at 5 cm (T5) when soil was moist (soil moisture, θ〉0.20 m3 m−3), and on both T5 and θ when soil was drier. A model (Fff (T5, θ)) explained 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:13541013:GCB915:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉92% of the variation in the daily mean Fff at both sites. Higher radiation reaching the ground during the leafless period, and a thinner litter layer because of faster decomposition, probably caused higher soil temperature at HW compared with PP. The annual Fff was estimated at 1330 and 1464 g C m−2 yr−1 for a year with mild drought (2001) at PP and HW, respectively, and 1231 and 1557 g C m−2 yr−1 for a year with severe drought (2002). In the wetter year, higher soil temperature and moisture at HW compared with PP compensated for the negative effect on Fff of the response to these variables resulting in similar annual Fff at both stands. In the drier year, however, the response to soil temperature and moisture was more similar at the two stands causing the difference in the state variables to impel a higher Fff at HW. A simple mass balance indicated that in the wetter year, C in the litter–soil system was at steady state at HW, and was accruing at PP. However, HW was probably losing C from the mineral soil during the severe drought year of 2002, while PP was accumulating C at a lower rate because of a loss of C from the litter layer. Such contrasting behavior of two forest types in close proximity might frustrate attempts to estimate regional carbon (C) fluxes and net C exchange.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 25 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Many aspects of plant water use – particularly in response to soil drought – may have as their basis the alteration of hydraulic conductance from soil to canopy. The regulation of plant water potential (Ψ) by stomatal control and leaf area adjustment may be necessary to maximize water uptake on the one hand, while avoiding loss of hydraulic contact with the soil water on the other. Modelling the changes in hydraulic conductance with pressure gradients in the continuum allows the prediction of water use as a function of soil environment and plant architectural and xylem traits. Large differences in water use between species can be attributed in part to differences in their ‘hydraulic equipment’ that is presumably optimized for drawing water from a particular temporal and spatial niche in the soil environment. A number of studies have identified hydraulic limits as the cause of partial or complete foliar dieback in response to drought. The interactions between root:shoot ratio, rooting depth, xylem properties, and soil properties in influencing the limits to canopy water supply can be used to predict which combinations should optimize water use in a given circumstance. The hydraulic approach can improve our understanding of the coupling of canopy processes to soil environment, and the adaptive significance of stomatal behaviour.
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