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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The objective of this research is to modify the well-instrumented standard cone configuration to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. We will then develop a standard test method with pass-fail criteria for future use in spacecraft materials flammability screening. (For example, dripping of molten material will be an automatic fail.)
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference and Workshop: Poster Session, Volume 2; 286-287; NASA/CP-2004-213205/VOL2
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: NASA s current method of material screening determines fire resistance under conditions representing a worst-case for normal gravity flammability - the Upward Flame Propagation Test (Test 1[1]). Its simple pass-fail criteria eliminates materials that burn for more than 12 inches from a standardized ignition source. In addition, if a material drips burning pieces that ignite a flammable fabric below, it fails. The applicability of Test 1 to fires in microgravity and extraterrestrial environments, however, is uncertain because the relationship between this buoyancy-dominated test and actual extraterrestrial fire hazards is not understood. There is compelling evidence that the Test 1 may not be the worst case for spacecraft fires, and we don t have enough information to assess if it is adequate at Lunar or Martian gravity levels.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
    Type: Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference; 123-124; NASA/TM-2004-213114
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The standard oxygen consumption (cone) calorimeter (described in ASTM E 1354 and NASA STD 6001 Test 2) is modified to provide a bench-scale test environment that simulates the low velocity buoyant or ventilation flow generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone geometry with the sample burning in a ceiling fire (stagnation flow) configuration. For a fixed radiant flux, ignition delay times for characterization material PMMA are shown to decrease by a factor of three at low stretch, demonstrating that ignition delay times determined from normal cone tests significantly underestimate the risk in microgravity. The critical heat flux for ignition is found to be lowered at low stretch as the convective cooling is reduced. At the limit of no stretch, any heat flux that exceeds the surface radiative loss at the surface ignition temperature is sufficient for ignition. Regression rates for PMMA increase with heat flux and stretch rate, but regression rates are much more sensitive to heat flux at the low stretch rates, where a modest increase in heat flux of 25 kW/m2 increases the burning rates by an order of magnitude. The global equivalence ratio of these flames is very fuel rich, and the quantity of CO produced in this configuration is significantly higher than standard cone tests. These results [2] demonstrate the ELSA apparatus allows us to conduct normal gravity experiments that accurately and quantifiably evaluate a material s flammability characteristics in the real-use environment of spacecraft or extra-terrestrial gravitational acceleration. These results also demonstrate that current NASA STD 6001 Test 2 (standard cone) is not conservative since it evaluates materials flammability with a much higher inherent buoyant convective flow.
    Keywords: Composite Materials
    Type: Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference; 121-122; NASA/TM-2004-213114
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The effect of a step change in gravity level on the stability of low stretch diffusion flames over a solid fuel is studied both numerically and experimentally. Drop tower experiments have been conducted in NASA Glenn Research Center's 5.2 Zero Gravity Facility. In the experiments burning PMMA cylinders, a dynamic transition is observed when the steadily burning 1g flame is dropped and becomes a 0g flame. To understand the physics behind this dynamic transition, a transient stagnation point model has been developed which includes gas-phase radiation and solid phase coupling to describe this dynamic process. In this paper, the experimental results are compared with the model predictions. Both model and experiment show that the interior of the solid phase does not have time to change significantly in the few seconds of drop time, so the experimental results are pseudo-steady in the gas-phase, but the solid is inherently unsteady over long time scales. The model is also used to examine the importance of fractional heat losses on extinction, which clearly demonstrates that as the feedback from the flame decreases, the importance of the ongoing heat losses becomes greater, and extinction is observed when these losses represent 80% or more of the flame feedback.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
    Type: Seventh International Workshop on Microgravity Combustion and Chemically Reacting Systems; 137-140; NASA/CP-2003-212376/REV1
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The objective of this project is to modify the standard oxygen consumption (cone) calorimeter (described in ASTM E 1354 and NASA STD 6001 Test 2) to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. This apparatus will allow us to conduct normal gravity experiments that accurately and quantitatively evaluate a material's flammability characteristics in the real-use environment of spacecraft or extra-terrestrial gravitational acceleration. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone geometry with the sample burning in a ceiling fire configuration that provides a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by a flame in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. Prototype unit testing results are presented in this paper. Ignition delay times and regression rates for PMMA are presented over a range of radiant heat flux levels and equivalent stretch rates which demonstrate the ability of ELSA to simulate key features of microgravity and extraterrestrial fire behavior.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: Seventh International Workshop on Microgravity Combustion and Chemically Reacting Systems; 213-216; NASA/CP-2003-212376/REV1
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: A Hele-Shaw flow apparatus constructed at Michigan State University (MSU) produces conditions that reduce influences of buoyancy-driven flows. In addition, in the MSU Hele-Shaw apparatus it is possible to adjust the heat losses from the fuel sample (0.001 in. thick cellulose) and the flow speed of the approaching oxidizer flow (air) so that the "flamelet regime of flame spread" is entered. In this regime various features of the flame-to-smolder (and vice versa) transition can be studied. For the relatively wide (approx. 17.5 cm) and long (approx. 20 cm) samples used, approximately ten flamelets existed at all times. The flamelet behavior was studied mechanistically and statistically. A heat transfer analysis of the dominant heat transfer mechanisms was conducted. Results indicate that radiation and conduction processes are important, and that a simple 1-D model using the Broido-Shafizadeh model for cellulose decomposition chemistry can describe aspects of the flamelet spread process. Introduction
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: Seventh International Workshop on Microgravity Combustion and Chemically Reacting Systems; 29-32; NASA/CP-2003-212376/REV1
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Microgravity tests varying oxygen concentration and forced flow velocity have examined the importance of transport processes on flame spread over very thin solid fuels. Flame spread rates, solid phase temperature profiles and flame appearance for these tests are measured. A flame spread map is presented which indicates three distinct regions where different mechanisms control the flame spread process. In the near-quenching region (very low characteristic relative velocities) a new controlling mechanism for flame spread - oxidizer transport-limited chemical reaction - is proposed. In the near-limit, blowoff region, high opposed flow velocities impose residence time limitations on the flame spread process. A critical characteristic relative velocity line between the two near-limit regions defines conditions which result in maximum flammability both in terms of a peak flame spread rate and minimum oxygen concentration for steady burning. In the third region, away from both near-limit regions, the flame spread behavior, which can accurately be described by a thermal theory, is controlled by gas-phase conduction.
    Keywords: PROPELLANTS AND FUELS
    Type: Combustion Science and Technology (ISSN 0010-2202); p. 233-249.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experimental program on the catalytic oxidation of iso-octane demonstrated the feasibility of the two-stage combustion system for reducing particulate emissions. With a fuel-rich (phi = 4.8 to 7.8) catalytic combustion preburner as the first stage the combustion process was soot free at reactor outlet temperatures of 1200 K or less. Although soot was not measured directly, its absence was indicated. Reaction products collected at two positions downstream of the catalyst bed were analyzed on a gas chromatograph. Comparison of these products indicated that pyrolysis of the larger molecules continued along the drift tube and that benzene formation was a gas-phase reaction. The effective hydrogen-carbon ratio calculated from the reaction products increased by 20 to 68 percent over the range of equivalence ratios tested. The catalytic partial oxidation process also yielded a large number of smaller-containing molecules. The fraction of fuel carbon in compounds having two or fewer carbon atoms ranged from 30 percent at 1100 K to 80 percent at 1200 K.
    Keywords: INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
    Type: NAS 1.60:2498 , NASA-TP-2498 , E-2604
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: NASA's current method of material screening determines fire resistance under conditions representing a worst-case for normal gravity flammability - the Upward Flame Propagation Test (Test 1). Its simple pass-fail criteria eliminates materials that burn for more than 12 inches from a standardized ignition source. In addition, if a material drips burning pieces that ignite a flammable fabric below, it fails. The applicability of Test 1 to fires in microgravity and extraterrestrial environments, however, is uncertain because the relationship between this buoyancy-dominated test and actual extraterrestrial fire hazards is not understood. There is compelling evidence that the Test 1 may not be the worst case for spacecraft fires, and we don t have enough information to assess if it is adequate at Lunar or Martian gravity levels.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
    Type: Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference and Workshop: Poster Session, Volume 2; 296-305; NASA/CP-2004-213205/VOL2
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The effect of slow external flow on solid combustion is very important from the view of fire safety in space because the solid material in spacecraft is generally exposed to the low air flow for ventilation. Further, the effect of low external flow on fuel combustion is generally fundamental information for industrial combustion system, such as gas turbine, boiler incinerator and so on. However, it is difficult to study the effect of low external flow on solid combustion in normal gravity, because the buoyancy-induced flow strongly disturbs the flow field, especially for low flow velocity. In this research therefore, the effect of slow external flow on opposed flame spreading over polyethylene (PE) wire insulation have been investigated in microgravity. The microgravity environment was provided by Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) in Japan and KC-135 at NASA GRC. The tested flow velocity range is 0-30cm/s with different oxygen concentration and inert gas component.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
    Type: Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop; 17-20; NASA/CP-2001-210826
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