light ion fusion
heavy ion fusion
ion beam propagation
ion beam focusing
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
Abstract Inertial confinement fusion with ion beams requires the efficient delivery of high energy (≳1 MJ), high power (≳100 TW) ion beams to a small fusion target. The propagation and focusing of such beams is the subject of this paper. Fundamental constraints on ion beam propagation and focusing are discussed, and ion beam propagation modes are categorized. For light ion fusion (LIF), large currents (2–33 MA) of moderate energy (3–50 MeV) ions of low atomic number (1⩽A≲12) must be directed to a target of radius ≲1 cm. The development of pulsed power ion diodes for LIF is discussed, and the necessity for virtually complete charge neutralization during transport and focusing is emphasized. Fornear-term LIF experiments, the goal is to produce pellet ignition without the standoff needed for the ultimate reactor application. Ion diodes for use on Sandia National Laboratories Particle Beam Fusion Accelerators PBFA-I (2–4 MV, 1 MJ, 30 TW, operational) and PBFA-II (2–16 MV, 3.5 MJ, 100 TW, scheduled for operation in 1985) are discussed. Ion beam transport from these diodes to the pellet is examined in reference to the power brightness ℬ. While values of ℬ=2–5 TW/cm2/sr have been achieved to date, a value of ℬ≈100 TW/cm2/sr is needed for breakeven. Research is now directed toward increasing ℬ, and means already exist (e.g., scaling to higher voltages, enhanced ion diode current densities, and bunching), which indicate that the required goal should be attainable. Forfar-term LIF applications, the goal is to produce net energy gain with standoff suitable for a reactor. This may be achieved by ion beam transport in preformed, current-carrying plasma channels. Channel transport research is discussed, including experiments with wire-initiated, wall-initiated, and laser-initiated discharge channels, all of which have demonstrated transport with high efficiency (50–100%). Alternate approaches to LIF are also discussed, including comoving electron beam schemes and a neutralized beam scheme. For heavy ion fusion (HIF), moderate currents (∼10 kA) of high energy (∼10 GeV) ions of high atomic number (A≳200) must be directed to a target of radius ≲0.3 cm. Conventional accelerator drivers for HIF are noted. For a baseline HIF reactor system, the optimum transport mode for low charge state beams is ballistic transport in near vacuum (10−4–10−3 Torr lithium), although a host of other possibilities exists. Development of transport modes suitable for higher charge state HIF beams may ultimately result in more economical HIF accelerator schemes. Alternate approaches to HIF are also discussed which involve collective effects accelerators. The status of the various ion beam transport and focusing modes for LIF and HIF are summarized, and the directions of future research are indicated.
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