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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The mean squared slowing-down distance, 〈r 2〉, and the age to themal capture (Migration Area),M 2, are direct measures of the slowing-down, and the spreading out, processes of neutrons in a medium. They also enter directly into reactor calculations. These parameters have been determined experimentally for Am-Be neutrons (mean energy 4.46 Me V), in a block of perpex, using the activities induced in thin indium foils from the115In(n,γ)116In reactions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed to investigate the relationship between three ancient occupation sites — Samaru-west, Pantaki and Tsauni in Kaduna State, Nigeria, based on the analysis of cultural deposits at the sites. Samaru-west was found to be related with Pantaki site but not so with the Tsauni site. Elemental profiles for the pottery excavated from each site have been established.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This work has been motivated by the need to establish reference materials from locally available sources. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) with Ge(Li) detector has been used to determine 26 elements in seven homogeneous clay samples with a wide range of composition. Short half-life nuclides (10s-10 m) were used to assay Na, Mg, K, Tl, Al, V, Mn, Ba, Dy, Ca and U by a fast rabbit transfer system. The long-lived nuclides were used to assay Sc, Sm, Cr, Eu, Ce, Cs, La, Fe, Lu, Hf, Co, Rb, Ta, Sb, and Pa(Th) after decay of24Na. The approach was purely instrumental. The accuracy of the resutls was tested by atomic absorption spectrometriy (AAS).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique has been employed viak 0 approximation method to determine elemental composition of five shaving powders commonly marketed in Nigeria. Fe displayed the highest concentrations in the range 1000–2000 μg·g−1. Na and Zn concentrations were established in the range 200–400 μg·g−1. Heavy elements like Ga, La, Cr, Co, Ag, Ce and Nd concentrations were noted in the lower range of 1–10 μg·g−1 Br, As, Sb, Sm, Eu, W, Cs, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th and U concentrations were established in even lower traces in the 〈1 μg·g−1 range. Results obtained for a certified reference material, CANMET BL-1 and CERT (in house) Kaolin standard compared favourably with the literature values thus establishing the results presented for the shaving powders.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Natural hazards 8 (1993), S. 235-261 
    ISSN: 1573-0840
    Keywords: Drought ; desertification ; northern Nigeria ; drought and desertification planning policy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Drought has been a recurring feature of the arid and semi-arid areas of Nigeria. This paper reviews the extent, severity, and consequences of drought and desertification in Nigeria with particular emphasis on the northern part of the country. The haphazard manner in which these environmental hazards have been tackled is examined and a systematic approach for the formulation of a national policy is proposed. It is recommended that a detailed formulation and implementation of the proposed policy plan is imperative to mitigate the often devastating impacts of drought and desertification in the very prone areas of Nigeria. Until such is done, some areas of Nigeria will always be vulnerable to the whims of an inevitable climatic hazard of drought and associated land degradation in the form of desertification.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Batch experiments have been performed to study the sorption and transport properties of Cs+, Sr2+ and Eu3+ on different clay minerals already established to be predominantly kaolinite and montmorillonite. The uptake of these radionuclides increases in the order Cs〈Sr〈Eu. This trend agrees perfectly with the overall sequence in ion-exchange equilibria.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Natural hazards 8 (1993), S. 171-188 
    ISSN: 1573-0840
    Keywords: Drought ; drought frequency ; drought severity ; northern Nigeria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A long-period instrumental data set (1916–1987) of monthly growing season (April–October) rainfall totals for 34 stations in northern Nigeria is used to quantify drought following the method of H. N. Bhalme and D. A. Mooley. It is established that there are remarkable seasonal changes in the patterns of wetness and dryness over the region with no consistent recurrent spatial patterns in the moisture anomalies. In general, large-scale droughts only rarely cover the region as a whole, and there are distinct spatial differences dominating the wet and dry years. The length and severity of drought varies from sub-area to sub-area with very low interannual persistence. Although discrete areas do catch the brunt of drought on a year-by-year basis, drought occurrence in the region is largely sporadic in its spatial distribution. The rather noisy spatial characteristics of drought in northern Nigeria suggests that the seasonal shift in the Intertropical Discontinuity (ITD) is not likely the most important causal mechanism of drought in the region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0840
    Keywords: Drought ; maximum entropy spectral analysis ; quasi-periodicities
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The maximum entropy spectral technique is used to search for periodicities in drought indices over the Great Plains of North America, covering a period of at least 70 years. The results show that in general, quasi-biennial, quasi-triennial and quasi-five-year cycles dominate the spectra of drought indices of many stations in the region. These significant periodicities in the 2–6 year waveband are, however, sporadic in their spatial distribution; they can be evident at one station while being absent at another a few hundred kilometres away. From the results of the spectral analysis, it is concluded that significant peaks obtained in the drought indices are only short-lived time variabilities in drought as recorded by individual stations and do not represent any persistent drought characteristics over a broad geographical region. In general, the drought series display only what appears to be a random variation, with the possible exception of a systematic quasi-biennial oscillation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PD-TOFMS) using accelerated argon ions (9 MeV) has been successfully used for characterizing the surface modifications induced at the surface of poly(ether etherketone) (PEEK) by cold plasma treatments. While the intact polymer structure leads to the emission of negative ions from fragmentation of the repeat unit, the degradation of such a structure under plasma exposure gives rise to production of oxidized fragments. It is demonstrated that this production is highest for a plasma using a mixture of O2 and N2 (20:80), and that as a function of treatment duration, the rate of oxidation of the modified surface layer correlates with adhesive strength, at least in a first step. PD-TOFMS is used for analysis of the failure patterns of epoxyamine adhesive/PEEK/carbon composite in order to localize the fracture position. It is concluded that the increase of the cohesion of the interphase layer as a function of the plasma treatment duration leads to a shift from the interphase/PEEK interface to the bulk of the matrial.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-4483
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary The interannual variability of seasonal Bhalme-and-Mooley-type drought indices over the savanna belt of Nigeria is examined and a 57-year (1931–1987) drought area series has been derived using 34 stations. The area under drought conditions is obtained by considering areas which have drought indices of less than — 1.0. The interannual variability of the drought areas is large, demonstrating large variations in the seasonal rainfall over the region. Statistical tests suggest a significant long-term increasing trend in the areal extent of drought. In particular, there is a major shift towards an increase in the mean areal extent of drought between the two periods 1931–1960 and 1961–1987.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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