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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract Various electrolytic methods were examined for recovering chlorine, hydrogen and ammonia from by-product ammonium chloride produced in the ammonium chloride-soda process. Two methods, one based on an aqueous electrolysis and the use of an ion exchange membrane, and the other employing a molten metal cathode were considered possible. This series of papers aims at a detailed description of the latter process, which seems more interesting from the viewpoint of industrial exploitation. This paper briefly reviews the other electrolytic processes before describing the principle of the molten salt process and the study of the reaction between ammonium chloride and liquid metals.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract This paper describes the electrolysis in detail and presents the results of bench-scale tests of the molten metal cathode process for recovering chlorine and ammonia from ammonium chloride, reported in the preceding paper (Part I). A zinc chloride electrolyte, 100 A bench-scale electrolytic cell was found to work well. The electrolytic power consumption for 1 kg zinc chloride electrolysis was calculated to be 1120Whkg−1.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Tomato ; Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ; Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) ; Tm-2 gene ; Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The Tm-2 gene and its alleles conferring tomato mosaic virus resistance in tomato originate from Lycopersicon peruvianum, a wild relative of tomato. DNA fragments of several RAPD markers tightly linked with the Tm-2 locus in tomato were successfully cloned and sequenced. Subsequently, the 24-mer oligonucleotide primer pairs of the SCAR markers corresponding to the RAPD markers were designed based on the 5’-endmost sequences. A fragment of the same size as that of a SCAR marker was amplified in the ToMV-susceptible tomato line with no Tm-2, but the digests of the PCR fragments by AccI exhibited polymorphism in fragment length between the two lines. We chose three SCAR markers and three RAPD markers tightly linked with the Tm-2 locus, and examined whether the same-sized fragments corresponding to these markers were also present in three other lines carrying Tm-2a or one of the other Tm-2 alleles. The fragments corresponding to the three SCAR markers were present in all of the three lines, but the other markers (three RAPDs ) were absent in one or two lines, suggesting that the three SCAR markers are closer to Tm-2 than the other markers. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of these fragments revealed that they are all homologous to the corresponding SCAR markers.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ; Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ; Disease resistance ; Tomato mosaic virus ; Nearly isogenic lines (NILs)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Tm-2 and Tm-2a are genes conferring resistance to tomato mosaic virus in Lycopersicon esculentum. They are allelic and originated from different lines of L. peruvianum, a wild relative of tomato. In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to these genes were screened in nearly isogenic lines (NILs). To detect RAPDs differentiating NILs, 220 different 10-base oligonucleotide primers were examined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and 43 of them generated 53 consistent polymorphic fragments among the NILs. Out of these 53 fragments, 13 were arbitrarily chosen and examined in respect of whether they were linked to the netted virescent (nv) gene, since nv is tightly linked to the Tm-2 locus and its phenotype is more easily distinguishable. As a result, all 13 markers were shown to be linked to nv, and hence to the Tm-2 locus. Among them, two fragments specific to the NIL carrying Tm-2 three specific to the NIL carrying Tm-2a, and four specific to both of these NILs were closely linked to nv.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Tomato  ;  Random amplified polymorphic ;  Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR)  ;  Tm-1 gene  ;  Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  We have cloned and sequenced six RAPD fragments tightly linked to the Tm-1 gene which confers tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance in tomato. The terminal ten bases in each of these clones exactly matched the sequence of the primer for amplifying the corresponding RAPD marker, except for one in which the 5′-endmost two nucleotides were different from those of the primer. These RAPD clones did not cross-hybridize with each other, suggesting that they were derived from different loci. From Southern-hybridization experiments, five out of the six RAPD clones were estimated to be derived from middle- or high-repetitive sequences, but not from any parts of the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA), which are known to be tightly linked with the Tm-1 locus. The remaining clone appeared to be derived from a DNA family consisting of a few copies. These six RAPD fragments were converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, each of which was detectable using a pair of primers having the same sequence as that at either end of the corresponding RAPD clone. All pairs of SCAR primers amplified distinct single bands whose sizes were the same as those of the RAPD clones. In four cases, the SCAR markers were present in the line with Tm-1 but absent in the line without it, as were the corresponding RAPD markers. In the two other cases, the products of the same size were amplified in both lines. When these SCAR products were digested with different restriction endonucleases which recognize 4-bp sequences, however, polymorphisms in fragment length were found between the two lines. These co-dominant markers are useful for differentiating heterozygotes from both types of homozygote.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Disease-resistance gene ; Lycopersicon esculentum ; Near-isogenic line (NIL) ; Polymorphism ; Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  We examined near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying either of the tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance genes Tm-1 and Tm-2 for sequences homologous to the isolated disease-resistance genes. DNA fragments were amplified from the genomic DNA of the NILs by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed on the basis of sequences of certain domains conserved among some disease-resistance genes. Of ten PCR products cloned, five were identified as having homology to either of the two classes of disease-resistance genes. The first class encoded proteins containing leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and a nucleotide-binding site (NBS), such as the RPS2 gene in Arabidopsis and the N gene in tobacco. The second class encoded proteins containing a C-terminal membrane anchor but no NBS, such as the Cf 2 and Cf 9 genes in tomato. In Southern hybridization of the genomic DNAs of the NILs carrying either Tm-1 or Tm-2 and their parental NIL carrying neither of these resistance genes, multiple bands could be detected with most of the clones used as probes. This suggests that the genomes of the NILs contain multiple copies of sequences homologous to some of the known disease-resistance genes. No evidence was obtained to show that the Tm-1 and/or Tm-2 loci encode either class of protein, since no polymorphic band patterns between the NILs were detected by Southern hybridization.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Tomato ; Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ; Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) ; Tm-1 gene ; Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have cloned and sequenced six RAPD fragments tightly linked to the Tm-1 gene which confers tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance in tomato. The terminal ten bases in each of these clones exactly matched the sequence of the primer for amplifying the corresponding RAPD marker, except for one in which the 5′-endmost two nucleotides were different from those of the primer. These RAPD clones did not cross-hybridize with each other, suggesting that they were derived from different loci. From Southern-hybridization experiments, five out of the six RAPD clones were estimated to be derived from middle- or high-repetitive sequences, but not from any parts of the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA), which are known to be tightly linked with the Tm-1 locus. The remaining clone appeared to be derived from a DNA family consisting of a few copies. These six RAPD fragments were converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, each of which was detectable using a pair of primers having the same sequence as that at either end of the corresponding RAPD clone. All pairs of SCAR primers amplified distinct single bands whose sizes were the same as those of the RAPD clones. In four cases, the SCAR markers were present in the line with Tm-1 but absent in the line without it, as were the corresponding RAPD markers. In the two other cases, the products of the same size were amplified in both lines. When these SCAR products were digested with different restriction endonucleases which recognize 4-bp sequences, however, polymorphisms in fragment length were found between the two lines. These co-dominant markers are useful for differentiating heterozygotes from both types of homozygote.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1010-6030
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Keywords: [abr] API; Achromobacter protease I ; [abr] G proteins; GTP-binding proteins ; [abr] SDS-PAGE; sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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