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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Delin -- Garcia, Heriberto -- Huang, Wei -- Tran, Duong D -- Jain, Ankita D -- Yi, Dong Hoon -- Gong, Zheng -- Jech, J Michael -- Godo, Olav Rune -- Makris, Nicholas C -- Ratilal, Purnima -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):366-70. doi: 10.1038/nature16960. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory for Ocean Acoustics and Ecosystem Sensing, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Laboratory for Undersea Remote Sensing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA. ; Institute of Marine Research, Post Office Box 1870, Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934221" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acoustics ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*physiology ; Atlantic Ocean ; Diet/veterinary ; Ecosystem ; *Feeding Behavior ; Fishes/*physiology ; Male ; Mammals/*physiology ; *Predatory Behavior ; Time Factors ; *Vocalization, Animal ; Whales/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2009-03-28
    Description: Similarities in the behavior of diverse animal species that form large groups have motivated attempts to establish general principles governing animal group behavior. It has been difficult, however, to make quantitative measurements of the temporal and spatial behavior of extensive animal groups in the wild, such as bird flocks, fish shoals, and locust swarms. By quantifying the formation processes of vast oceanic fish shoals during spawning, we show that (i) a rapid transition from disordered to highly synchronized behavior occurs as population density reaches a critical value; (ii) organized group migration occurs after this transition; and (iii) small sets of leaders significantly influence the actions of much larger groups. Each of these findings confirms general theoretical predictions believed to apply in nature irrespective of animal species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Makris, Nicholas C -- Ratilal, Purnima -- Jagannathan, Srinivasan -- Gong, Zheng -- Andrews, Mark -- Bertsatos, Ioannis -- Godo, Olav Rune -- Nero, Redwood W -- Jech, J Michael -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2009 Mar 27;323(5922):1734-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1169441.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. makris@mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19325116" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Migration ; Animals ; Atlantic Ocean ; *Behavior, Animal ; Ecosystem ; Fishes/*physiology ; Population Density ; Reproduction ; Spatial Behavior ; *Swimming ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of fish biology 62 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Cod Gadus morhua population in the Barents Sea was found to be spatially structured with regard to length-at-age. Results were based on data collected during research surveys in the Barents Sea between 1982 and 1997. The identified spatial structure was most pronounced for age groups 2–4 years and decreased for the older age groups with higher potential for migration. A positive linear correlation between mean length-at-age and mean geographical temperature was established for age groups 2–4 years. This correlation was shown to be strongest when based on mean temperatures during 3 year periods ending with the year of capture. The spatial structure in length-at-age was shown to follow the temperature gradient of the Barents Sea. A large part of the observed area effects could be explained by temperature variation between areas. Evidence is also presented which indicates that the predictability and sensitivity of the dependence of length-at-age on temperature increases under extreme environmental conditions, i.e. in the northern and eastern areas of the Barents Sea.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
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    Wiley-Blackwell
    In:  In: Life in the World's Oceans: Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 103-121. ISBN 978-1-4051-9297-2
    Publication Date: 2016-10-17
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Material collected in summer 2004 from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores with three pelagic trawls was used to estimate relative catchabilities of common fish, cephalopod, decapod, and jellyfish species. Catchability is defined as the ratio of numbers caught between two trawls, standardized for towed distance. Taxon-specific catchability coefficients were estimated for two large pelagic trawls with graded meshes, using a smaller pelagic trawl with a uniform mesh size as the reference trawl. Two of the trawls were equipped with multiple opening–closing codends that allowed sampling of different depth layers. Generalized linear and mixed models suggest that most of the taxa have catchabilities much lower than expected from the area of opening alone, indicating that only a few species are herded by the large mesh at the mouth of larger trawls. Catchability coefficients across taxa show a very large spread, indicating that the sampled volume for the larger trawls with graded meshes was highly taxon-specific. Part of this variability can be explained by body size and taxonomic group, the latter probably reflecting differences in body form and behaviour. The catchability estimates presented here form the basis for combining data for quantitative analyses of community structure.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-09-30
    Description: Arctic and Antarctic marine systems have in common high latitudes, large seasonal changes in light levels, cold air and sea temperatures, and sea ice. In other ways, however, they are strikingly different, including their: age, extent, geological structure, ice stability, and foodweb structure. Both regions contain very rapidly warming areas and climate impacts have been reported, as have dramatic future projections. However, the combined effects of a changing climate on oceanographic processes and foodweb dynamics are likely to influence their future fisheries in very different ways. Differences in the life-history strategies of the key zooplankton species (Antarctic krill in the Southern Ocean and Calanus copepods in the Arctic) will likely affect future productivity of fishery species and fisheries. To explore future scenarios for each region, this paper: (i) considers differing characteristics (including geographic, physical, and biological) that define polar marine ecosystems and reviews known and projected impacts of climate change on key zooplankton species that may impact fished species; (ii) summarizes existing fishery resources; (iii) synthesizes this information to generate future scenarios for fisheries; and (iv) considers the implications for future fisheries management. Published studies suggest that if an increase in open water during summer in Arctic and Subarctic seas results in increased primary and secondary production, biomass may increase for some important commercial fish stocks and new mixes of species may become targeted. In contrast, published studies suggest that in the Southern Ocean the potential for existing species to adapt is mixed and that the potential for the invasion of large and highly productive pelagic finfish species appears low. Thus, future Southern Ocean fisheries may largely be dependent on existing species. It is clear from this review that new management approaches will be needed that account for the changing dynamics in these regions under climate change.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator–prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-11-24
    Description: Pedersen, G., Godø, O. R., Ona, E., and Macaulay, G. J. 2011. A revised target strength–length estimate for blue whiting ( Micromesistius poutassou ): implications for biomass estimates. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68: 2222–2228. Acoustic abundance estimates of blue whiting have generally been higher than estimates based on catch data. One explanation has been that the relationship between acoustic target strength ( TS ) and length is too low and hence overestimates the number of fish. Measurements of TS were conducted during surveys of blue whiting in March/April 2003–2007 to the west of the British Isles from several different measurement platforms, and also during August 2005 in the Norwegian Sea. Results from these experiments confirm the view that the existing TS –length relationship is too low. A new TS –length relationship is proposed that is ~5 dB higher. Blue whiting TS is considerably higher than observed and modelled for a similar species, southern blue whiting ( Micromesistius australis ).
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2008-05-01
    Description: Lunde, T. M., Godø, O. R., and Rosland, R. 2008. Reliability of trawl surveys on cod in Norwegian fjords. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 937–945. According to ICES, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, populations of coastal cod (CC) in Norway north of 62°N have been declining since 1994. The estimates are based on analytical assessment in which the most recent estimates are tuned with survey information. We evaluate the quality of bottom-trawl surveys conducted in four North Norwegian fjords during autumn of the years 1995–2004. Surveys tended to be carried out later in autumn in the more recent years than in the earlier years. Consequently, there was a significant decrease in sun's altitude from 1995 to 2004 at the time the surveys were carried out. Further inconsistency among years dominated when comparing catch per unit effort (cpue) by year class and age over time. Often, the observed cpue at age a + 1 in year y + 1 was greater than in year y at age a. Spearman’s rank correlation of cpue vs. year also demonstrated inconsistencies in the data. The problems related to separating CC and northeast Arctic cod are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1989-01-01
    Print ISSN: 1054-3139
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9289
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Physics
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