ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are reported from airborne PAN measurements obtained at altitudes 0-6 km over the continental U.S. and the eastern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) in summer 1986. The CITE 2 flights and instrumentation are described, and the results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. It is shown that PAN is an important reactive N-containing species in the troposphere. Although the PAN mixing ratios were highly variable, in general high mixing ratios of 100-300 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) were found at 4-6 km, and very low ratios (5-20 pptv) were detected in the marine boundary layer. Good correlation was seen between the CITE 2 PAN values and those for O3, NO(y), NO(x), HNO3, C2H6, CO, and CFCl3.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10163-10
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Ethyl alcohol's known ability to produce reliable decrements in pilot performance was used in a study designed to evaluate objective methods for assessing pilot performance. Four air carrier pilot volunteers were studied during eight simulated flights in a B727 simulator. Total errors increased linearly and significantly with increasing blood alcohol. Planning and performance errors, procedural errors and failures of vigilance each increased significantly in one or more pilots and in the group as a whole.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine (ISSN 0095-6562); 62; 233-235
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The partitioning of relative nitrogen in the Arctic and the sub-Arctic troposphere based on measurements conducted during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) is described. The first set of comprehensive odd nitrogen and O3 measurements from the Arctic/sub-Arctic free troposphere shows that a highly aged air mass that has persisted under very cold conditions is present. A large fraction of the odd nitrogen appears to be present in the form of reservoir species such as PAN. Significant quantities of as yet unknown reactive nitrogen species, such as complex alkyl nitrates and pernitrates, are expected to be present. Together with PAN, these nitrate and pernitrate reservoir species could control the entire NO(x) availability of the high-latitude troposphere and in turn influence the O3 photochemistry of the region. The role of PAN in influencing the O3 reservoir is shown to be important and may be responsible for the increasing O3 temporal trend observed at high latitudes.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D15; p. 16,523-16,530.
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species during the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) are described, their north-south and east-west gradients in the free troposphere are characterized, and the sources and sinks of PAN and NO(y) are assessed. Large concentrations of PAN and NO(y) are present in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere of the Northern Hemisphere during the summer. Mixing ratios of PAN and a variety of other molecules are more abundant in the free troposphere compared to the boundary layer. Coincident PAN and O3 atmospheric structures suggest that phenomena that define PAN also define the corresponding O3 behavior. Model calculations, correlations between NO(y) and anthropogenic tracers, and the compositions of NO(y) itself suggest that the Arctic/sub-Arctic reactive nitrogen measured during ABLE 3A is predominantly of anthropogenic origin with a minor component from the stratosphere.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; D15; p. 16,511-16,522.
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: An analysis is presented on the distribution and variability of PAN as well as its relationship with measured chemical and meteorological parameters. The chemicals of most interest for which measurements were available are PAN, NO(x), O3, CO, and C2Cl4. PAN was measured by the electron capture gas chromatographic technique, and the technique for calibrations and measurements are detailed. Data show that significant concentrations of PAN (5-125 ppt) are present during the wet season and this PAN is 1-5 times more abundant than NO(x). PAN levels at different atmospheric locations are discussed, and it is noted that PAN shows evidence of a possible latitudinal gradient in the free troposphere, with values falling rapidly from the northern midlatitudes toward the equator. High correlations between O3 and PAN levels suggest that nonmethane hydrocarbons may contribute significantly to high O3 in the free troposphere. Evidence indicates that virtually all of the NO(x) above 4 km could result from PAN decomposition.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 16945-16
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: The American journal of physiology (ISSN 0002-9513); Volume 265; 1 Pt 1; E153-61
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), NO, NO2, HNO3, NOy (total odd nitrogen), and O3 were made in the high-latitude troposphere over North America and Greenland (35 degrees to 82 degrees N) during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) (July-August 1988) throughout 0-to 6-km altitudes. These data are analyzed to quantitatively describe the relationships between various odd nitrogen species and assess their significance to global tropospheric chemistry. In the free troposphere, PAN was as much as 25 times more abundant than NOx. PAN to NOx ratio increased with increasing altitude and latitude. PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species in the free troposphere and constituted a major fraction of NOy, PAN to NOy ratios were about 0.1 in the boundary layer and increased to 0.4 in the free troposphere. A 2-D global photochemical model with C1-C3 hydrocarbon chemistry is used to compare model predictions with measured results. A sizable portion (approximately 50%) of the gaseous reactive nitrogen budget is unaccounted for, and unknown organic nitrates and pernitrates are expected to be present. Model calculations (August 1, 70 degrees N) show that a major fraction of the observed NOx (50 to 70% of median) may find its source in the available PAN reservoir. PAN and the unknown reservoir species may have the potential to control virtually the entire NOx availability of the high latitude troposphere. It is predicted that the summer NOx and O3 mixing ratios in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere would be considerably lower in the absence of the ubiquitous PAN reservoir. Conversely, this PAN reservoir may be responsible for the observed temporal increase in tropospheric O3 at high latitudes.
    Keywords: Exobiology
    Type: Journal of geophysical research (ISSN 0148-0227); Volume 97; D15; 16523-30
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: Acetone (CH3COCH3) was found to be the dominant nonmethane organic species present in the atmosphere sampled primarily over eastern Canada (0-6 km, 35 deg-65 deg N) during ABLE3B (July to August 1990). A concentration range of 357 to 2310 ppt (= 10(exp -12) v/v) with a mean value of 1140 +/- 413 ppt was measured. Under extremely clean conditions, generally involving Arctic flows, lowest (background) mixing ratios of 550 +/- 100 ppt were present in much of the troposphere studied. Correlations between atmospheric mixing ratios of acetone and select species such as C2H2, CO, C3H8, C2Cl4 and isoprene provided important clues to its possible sources and to the causes of its atmospheric variability. Biomass burning as a source of acetone has been identified for the first time. By using atmospheric data and three-dimensional photochemical models, a global acetone source of 40-60 Tg (= 10(exp 12) g)/yr is estimated to be present. Secondary formation from the atmospheric oxidation of precursor hydrocarbons (principally propane, isobutane, and isobutene) provides the single largest source (51%). The remainder is attributable to biomass burning (26%), direct biogenic emissions (21%), and primary anthropogenic emissions (3%). Atmospheric removal of acetone is estimated to be due to photolysis (64%), reaction with OH radicals (24%), and deposition (12%). Model calculations also suggest that acetone photolysis contributed significantly to PAN formation (100-200 ppt) in the middle and upper troposphere of the sampled region and may be important globally. While the source-sink equation appears to be roughly balanced, much more atmospheric and source data, especially from the southern hemisphere, are needed to reliably quantify the atmospheric budget of acetone.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; D1; p. 1805-1819
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: Aircraft measurements of key reactive nitrogen species (NO, NO2, HNO3, PAN, PPN, NO3(-), NO(y)), C1 to C6 hydrocarbons, acetone, O3, chemical tracers (C2Cl4, CO), and important meteorological parameters were performed over eastern Canada during July to August 1990 at altitudes between 0 and 6 km as part of an Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE3B). In the free troposphere, PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species constituting a major fraction of NO(y) and was significantly more abundant than NO(x) and HNO3. PAN and O3 were well correlated both in their fine and gross structures. Compared to data previously collected in the Arctic/subarctic atmosphere over Alaska (ABLE3A), the lower troposphere (0-4 km) over eastern Canada was found to contain larger reactive nitrogen and anthropogenic tracer concentrations. At higher altitudes (4-6 km) the atmospheric composition was in many ways similar to what was seen over Alaska and supports the view that a large-scale reservoir of PAN (and NO(y)) is present in the upper troposphere over the entire Arctic/subarctic region. The reactive nitrogen budget based on missions conducted from the North Bay site (missions 2-10) showed a small shortfall, whereas the budget for data collected from the Goose Bay operation (missions 11-19) showed essential balance. It is calculated that 15-20 ppt of the observed NO(x) may find its source from the available PAN reservoir. Meteorological considerations as well as relationships between reactive nitrogen and tracer species suggest that the atmosphere over eastern Canada during summer is greatly influenced by forest fires and transported industrial pollution.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 99; D1; p. 1821-1835
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...