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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-8853
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Bromate and nitrite are formed during the disinfection of water. The German threshold value for nitrite in drinking water is 100 μg/L, for bromate a limit below 50 μg/L has to be established. A self-made high-capacity resin with 2-(dimethylamino)-ethanol functionality in combination with a UV-transparent elution system based on perchloric acid allows the separation and sensitive photometric detection of nitrite and bromate, even if high chloride concentrations are present. The high capacity of the strongly basic resin allows sample volumes of up to 400 μL without disturbance of the separation. Detection limits for bromate and nitrite are 15 and 10 μg/L, respectively. The direct analysis of water samples with high salt contents, such as disinfected pool water, is possible by insertion of an on-line chloride removal step.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A comparison of two separation columns for high-capacity anion chromatography is presented. The distinctive feature of both packing materials is the structure of the alkyl-chain (spacer-group) between the polymer-backbone and the functional group. All other parameters, e.g. exchange capacity, functionality and length of the spacer-arm, are identical. The retention behavior of the so-called standard-anions is investigated on both columns under identical chromatographic conditions using an experimental design technique in the course of which the composition of the elution system applied is varied. The statistical treatment of the retention data offers the possibility to explain the different chromatographic behavior of both stationary phases, at least qualitatively.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract   The diffusivity of water has been investigated for a haplogranitic melt of anhydrous composition Qz28Ab38Or34 (in wt %) at temperatures of 800–1200°C and at pressures of 0.5–5.0 kbar using the diffusion couple technique. Water contents of the starting glass pairs varied between 0 and 9 wt %. Concentration-distance profiles for the different water species (molecular water and hydroxyl groups) were determined by near-infrared microspectroscopy. Because the water speciation of the melt is not quenchable (Nowak 1995; Nowak and Behrens 1995; Shen and Keppler 1995), the diffusivities of the individual species can not be evaluated directly from these profiles. Therefore, apparent chemical diffusion coefficients of water (D water) were determined from the total water profiles using a modified Boltzmann-Matano analysis. The diffusivity of water increases linearly with water content 〈3 wt % but exponentially at higher water contents. The activation energy decreases from 64 ± 10 kJ/mole for 0.5 wt % water to 46 ± 5 kJ/mole for 4 wt % water but remains constant at higher water contents. A small but systematic decrease of D water with pressure indicates an average activation volume of about 9 cm3/mole. The diffusivity (in cm2/s) can be calculated for given water content (in wt %), T (in K) and P (in kbar) by in the ranges 1073 K ≤ T ≤ 1473 K; 0.5 kbar ≤ P≤ 5␣kbar; 0.5 wt % ≤ C water ≤ 6 wt %. The absence of alkali concentration gradients in the glasses after the experiments shows that interdiffusion of alkali and H+ or H3O+ gives no contribution to the transport of water in aluminosilicate melts. The H/D interdiffusion coefficients obtained at 800°C and 5 kbar using glass pieces with almost the same molar content of either water or deuterium oxide are almost identical to the chemical diffusivities of water. This indicates that protons are transported by the neutral component H2O under these conditions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Diffusion of water was experimentally investigated for melts of albitic (Ab) and quartz-orthoclasic (Qz29Or71, in wt %) compositions with water contents in the range of 0 to 8.5 wt % at temperatures of 1100 to 1200 °C and at pressures of 1.0 and 5.0 kbar. Apparent chemical diffusion coefficients of water (D water) were determined from concentration-distance profiles measured by FTIR microspectroscopy. Under the same P-T condition and water content the diffusivity of water in albitic, quartz-orthoclasic and haplogranitic (Qz28Ab38 Or34, Nowak and Behrens, this issue) melts is identical within experimental error. Comparison to data published in literature indicates that anhydrous composition only has little influence on the mobility of water in polymerized melts but that the degree of polymerization has a large effect. For instance, Dwater is almost identical for haplogranitic and rhyolitic melts with 0.5–3.5 wt % water at 850 °C but it is two orders of magnitude higher in basaltic than in haplogranitic melts with 0.2–0.5 wt % water at 1300 °C. Based on the new water diffusivity data, recently published in situ near-infrared spectroscopic data (Nowak 1995; Nowak and Behrens 1995), and viscosity data (Schulze et al. 1996) for hydrous haplogranitic melts current models for water diffusion in silicate melts are critically reviewed. The NIR spectroscopy has indicated isolated OH groups, pairs of OH groups and H2O molecules as hydrous species in polymerized silicate melts. A significant contribution of isolated OH groups to the transport of water is excluded for water contents above 10 ppm by comparison of viscosity and water diffusion data and by inspection of concentration profiles from trace water diffusion. Spectroscopic measurements have indicated that the interconversion of H2O molecules and OH pairs is relatively fast in silicate glasses and melts even at low temperature and it is inferred that this reaction is an active step for migration of water. However, direct jumps of H2O molecules from one cavity within the silicate network to another one can not be excluded. Thus, we favour a model in which water migrates by the interconversion reaction and, possibly, small sequences of direct jumps of H2O molecules. In this model, immobilization of water results from dissociation of the OH pairs. Assuming that the frequency of the interconversion reaction is faster than that of diffusive jumps, OH pairs and water molecules can be treated as a single diffusing species having an effective diffusion coefficient . The shape of curves of Dwater versus water content implies that increases with water content. The change from linear to exponential dependence of Dwater between 2 and 3 wt % water is attributed to the influence of the dissociation reaction at low water content and to the modification of the melt structure by incorporation of OH groups.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Organochlorine pesticide levels were determined in Neotropical migrant passerines which have populations reported to be declining. Pesticide residues ranging from 0.385 to 27.4 ng/g were found in 19 of 21 birds, including both Hatch Year (HY) and After Hatch Year (AHY) age classes of nine different species. Eighteen of the 19 birds contained p,p'-DDE, while dieldrin was found in 16 birds and heptachlor epoxide was present in 10 birds. There were no significant differences in pesticide levels between HY and AHY birds, suggesting that HY birds are exposed to pesticides in their diet on the breeding ground or that pesticides are acquired from contaminated mothers, or both. Pesticide levels were not related to gender. Although the effects of these low residue levels on passerine fecundity are unknown, their presence has potential conservation implications for passerines and for the raptorial birds that feed upon them.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Organochlorine pesticide levels were determined in Neotropical migrant passerines which have populations reported to be declining. Pesticide residues ranging from 0.385 to 27.4 ng/g were found in 19 of 21 birds, including both Hatch Year (HY) and After Hatch Year (AHY) age classes of nine different species. Eighteen of the 19 birds contained p,p′-DDE, while dieldrin was found in 16 birds and heptachlor epoxide was present in 10 birds. There were no significant differences in pesticide levels between HY and AHY birds, suggesting that HY birds are exposed to pesticides in their diet on the breeding ground or that pesticides are acquired from contaminated mothers, or both. Pesticide levels were not related to gender. Although the effects of these low residue levels on passerine fecundity are unknown, their presence has potential conservation implications for passerines and for the raptorial birds that feed upon them.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Infrared Physics 23 (1983), S. 35-42 
    ISSN: 0020-0891
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Infrared Physics 24 (1984), S. 483-484 
    ISSN: 0020-0891
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Theq+q→γ+q+q contribution (for incoming quarks of equal and different flavours) to the next-to-leading correction for the direct photon production inpp collisions is calculated, analyzed in terms of double moments and compared with the data. The dimensional regularization method is used and the final state Bremsstrahlung infinities are regularized by an angular cut-off. The correction is found to be 30–40% of the Born contribution providing a better description of the data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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