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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: 1,6-β-Glucanase ; Characterization ; Catabolite repression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The filamentous fungus Penicillium italicum when grown in a synthetic medium, produced and secreted 1,6-β-glucanase into the culture medium. This enzyme has been partially purified by gel filtration. After this step the active fractions were free of 1,3-β-glucanase, α-amylase and β-glucosidase activities. Only four proteins, one associated with the enzyme, were found by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non denaturing conditions. The enzyme behaves as an acidic protein (pI 4.65) with an optimum pH of 5 and an endohydrolytic mode of action. The activity was lost at pHs greater than 7. The enzyme was also found associated with the mycelium. Its synthesis was repressed by glucose or growth-promoting sugars. Derepression in low glucose containing medium required protein synthesis. 8-Hydroxyquinoline, an RNA synthesis inhibitor, added during the derepression period did permit some increase in the specific activity but prevented it when added at the beginning of that period.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; SLT2 ; MAP-kinase ; Caffeine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have further characterized the functionality of theSaccharomyces cerevisiae geneSLT2(MPK1), coding for a MAP-kinase homolog essential for cell integrity, which is involved in the Pkc1p signalling pathway. This gene was isolated on the basis of its capacity to complement the thermosensitive-autolytic, osmotic-remediable phenotype oflyt2 mutants. Bothslt2A andlyt2 mutants displayed a caffeine-sensitive phenotype consisting of cell lysis that was not dependent on temperature. Caffeine concentrations affecting the growth of these mutant strains were dependent on the genetic background, theSSD1 allele being very significant in this regard. TheSLT2 allele of severallyt2 strains was both rescued and amplified by PCR. The recovered allele was shown to be non-functional as it could not complement the lytic phenotype of both deletion (slt2Δ) andlyt2 strains. After nucleotide sequencing of the recovered allele, we found that the defect oflyt2 mutants consists in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a glycine at position 35 of the amino-acid sequence of Slt2p. Gly35 is the third glycine of a glycine cluster (Gly-X-Gly-X-X-Gly), a conserved region in protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Keywords Yeast ; SLT2 ; MAP-kinase ; Caffeine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  We have further characterized the functionality of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SLT2(MPK1), coding for a MAP-kinase homolog essential for cell integrity, which is involved in the Pkc1p signalling pathway. This gene was isolated on the basis of its capacity to complement the thermosensitive-autolytic, osmotic-remediable phenotype of lyt2 mutants. Both slt2Δ and lyt2 mutants displayed a caffeine-sensitive phenotype consisting of cell lysis that was not dependent on temperature. Caffeine concentrations affecting the growth of these mutant strains were dependent on the genetic background, the SSD1 allele being very significant in this regard. The SLT2 allele of several lyt2 strains was both rescued and amplified by PCR. The recovered allele was shown to be non-functional as it could not complement the lytic phenotype of both deletion (slt2Δ) and lyt2 strains. After nucleotide sequencing of the recovered allele, we found that the defect of lyt2 mutants consists in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a glycine at position 35 of the amino-acid sequence of Slt2p. Gly35 is the third glycine of a glycine cluster (Gly-X-Gly-X-X-Gly), a conserved region in protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The Candida albicans XOG1 gene, previously shown to be a good reporter gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. albicans, was tested in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Unlike the budding yeast, S. pombe does not produce exoglucanase activity and hence this system would be applicable to any given strain of this organism. The XOG1 gene was located under the control of the nmt1 promoter and its functionality could be demonstrated even at high temperatures (37°C). The exoglucanase activity can be measured both in vivo and in vitro by either a simple biochemical reaction (on cells or media) or by flow cytometry, because the cells remain viable after the assay.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: By genetic analysis of a thermosensitive autolytic mutant whose phenotype was complemented by osmotic stabilization with sorbitol, we identified gene LYT2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is probably involved in cell wall formation. A yeast gene complementing lyt2 strains was cloned and shown to carry an open reading frame coding for a 484-amino-acid protein exhibiting all the characteristic domains of serine/threonine protein kinases and highly homologous to other yeast protein kinases involved in control of the mitotic cycle. Mutants disrupted in the cloned gene also displayed an autolytic phenotype complemented by osmotic stabilization with sorbitol. However, genetic comparison of lyt2 mutants and disruptants of the protein kinase gene revealed that the cloned gene is not the structural gene LVT2 but a suppressor of the lytic phenotype, named gene SLT2, that was mapped to chromosome V. The product of gene SLT2 is the first protein kinase to be described in relation to the yeast cell-wall functions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: MKK1/MKK2 and SLT2 (MPK1) are three Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, coding for protein kinases, that have been postulated to act sequentially as part of the Pkc1p signalling pathway, a phosphorylation cascade essential for cell integrity. By using the ‘two-hybrid system’ and co-purification experiments on glutathione-agarose beads, we have shown that Slt2p interacts in vivo and in vitro with both Mkk1p and Mkk2p, thus confirming a previous suggestion based on epistasis experiments of the corresponding genes. Plasmid constructs of the SLT2 gene, deleted in the whole C-terminal non-kinase region or part of it, and therefore containing all of the conserved kinase subdomains, were still functional in complementation of the slt2 lytic phenotype and in vivo interaction with Mkk1p and Mkk2p. In contrast, the Slt2p C-terminal domain (162 residues) that carries a glutamine-rich fragment followed by a 16 polyglutamine tract, was shown to be dispensable for complementation and in vivo association with Mkk1p and Mkk2p. We have also demonstrated that the N-terminal putative regulatory domain of these two MAP kinase activators is the main region involved in the interaction with Slt2p.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In order to develop plasmids adequate for non-integrative genetic transformation of Candida albicans, a DNA fragment of 15.3 kb was cloned from this organism on the basis of its capacity to convert the integrative Saccharomyces cerevisiae vector Ylp5 into a non-integrative one. Southern hybridization analysis, carried out with a labelled DNA probe of 3.6 kb derived from the cloned fragment, showed that it consisted of C. albicans DNA, the hybridization pattern indicating that the corresponding sequences were homologous to several chromosomal regions. The size of the C. albicans DNA promoting autonomous replication In S. cerevisiae was substantially reduced by subcloning. A 5.1 kb subfragment, defined by BamHI and SalI restriction sites, retained autonomous replication sequences (ARS) functional in the heterologous S. cerevisiae system and in C. albicans, when inserted in plasmid constructions that carried a S. cerevisiae trichodermin-resistance gene (tcm1) as selection marker. C. albicans transformants were both of the integrative and the non-integrative type and the plasmids recovered from the latter very often carried a reorganized ARS, indicating that recombination of the inserted ARS DNA had occurred in the homologous host. Successive reorganizations of the ARS insert in C. albicans eventually led to a more stable and much smaller fragment of 687 bp that was subsequently recovered unchanged from transformants. Sequence analysis of the 687 bp fragment revealed four 11-base blocks, rich in A+T, that carried the essential consensus sequence considered relevant for yeast ARS elements in addition to other features also described as characteristic of yeast replication origins.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Firefly luciferase ; yeast expression ; gene reporter ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The LUC gene coding for Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase was cloned in different yeast episomal plasmids in order to assess its possibilities as an in vivo reporter gene. Activity of the enzyme in transformed cells in vivo was measured by following light emission and assay conditions optimized in intact cells, with regard to oxygen concentration, temperature, cell concentration in assay mixtures and external ATP concentration. Among the factors tested, light emission was drastically influenced by the external pH in the assay (which resulted in a ten-fold amplification signal) and by substrate permeability. The growth phase of the cells was also important for the level of activity detected. Cloning of firefly luciferase gene under the control of different yeast-regulated promoters (ADH1, GAL1-10) enabled us to measure their strength which correlated well with previously described data. We conclude that firefly luciferase is an adequate gene reporter for the in vivo sensitive determination of gene expression and promoter strength in yeast.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 12 (1996), S. 1677-1702 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: No Abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 39-45 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Flow cytometry ; autolytic mutants ; protoplasts ; yeast ; viability assay ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Simple methods, based on the technique of flow cytometry, have been developed for the phenotypic characterization of yeast autolytic mutants and for the analysis of the formation and regeneration of the yeast protoplasts. The expression of lytic mutations determined uptake of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide, which could be carefully monitored by flow cytometry. Mixed populations of lysed and viable cells were precisely quantified and sorted, and the technique was also applied to demonstrate protection from lysis of mutant cells with cell wall defects, in the presence of osmotic stabilizers. Protoplast formation and regeneration was monitored by analysing relative cell size; this was facilitated by the preparation of homogeneous protoplast preparations. The technique of flow cytometry proved superior to other conventional methods for these types of study.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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