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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: Establishing the abundance and physical properties of regolith and boulders on asteroids is crucial for understanding the formation and degradation mechanisms at work on their surfaces. Using images and thermal data from NASA's Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft, we show that asteroid (101955) Bennu's surface is globally rough, dense with boulders, and low in albedo. The number of boulders is surprising given Bennu's moderate thermal inertia, suggesting that simple models linking thermal inertia to particle size do not adequately capture the complexity relating these properties. At the same time, we find evidence for a wide range of particle sizes with distinct albedo characteristics. Our findings imply that ages of Bennu's surface particles span from the disruption of the asteroid's parent body (boulders) to recent in situ production (micrometre-scale particles).
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN67770 , Nature Astronomy (e-ISSN 2397-3366); 3; 341–351
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford [u.a.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 43 (1987), S. 2104-2106 
    ISSN: 1600-5759
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Interpretation of the impact record on Gaspra requires understanding of the effects of collisions on a target body of Gaspra's size and shape, recognition of impact features that may have different morphologies from craters on larger planets, and models of the geological processes that erase and modify impact features. Crater counts on the 140 sq km of Gaspra imaged at highest resolution by the Galileo spacecraft show a steep size-frequency distribution (cumulative power-law index near -3.5) from the smallest resolvable size (150 m diameter) up through the large feature (1.5 km diameter crater) of familiar crater-like morphology. In addition, there appear to be as many as eight roughly circular concavities with diameters greater than 3 km visible on the asteroid. If we restrict our crater counts to features with traditionally recognized crater morphologies, these concavities would not be included. However, if we define craters to include any concave structures that may represent local or regional damage at an impact size, then the larger features on Gaspra are candidates for consideration. Acceptance of the multi-km features as craters has been cautious for several reasons. First, scaling laws (the physically plausible algorithms for extrapolating from experimental data) indicate that Gaspra could not have sustained such large-crater-forming impacts without being disrupted; second, aside from concavity, the larger structures have no other features (e.g. rims) that can be identified with known impact craters; and third, extrapolation of the power-law size distribution for smaller craters predicts no craters larger than 3 km over the entire surface. On the other hand, recent hydrocode modeling of impacts shows that for given impact (albeit into a sphere), the crater size is much larger than given by scaling laws. Gaspra-size bodies can sustain formation of up to 8-km craters without disruption. Besides allowing larger impact craters, this result doubles the lifetime since the last catastrophic fragmentation event up to one billion years. Events that create multi-km craters also globally damage the material structure, such that regolith is produced, whether or not Gaspra 'initially' had a regolith, contrary to other models in which initial regolith is required in order to allow current regolith. Because the globally destructive shock wave precedes basin formation, crater size is closer to the large size extrapolated from gravity-scaling rather than the strength-scaling that had earlier been assumed for such small bodies. This mechanism may also help explain the existence of Stickney on Phobos. Moreover, rejection of the large concavities as craters based on unfamiliar morphology would be premature, because (aside from Stickney) we have no other data on such large impact structures on such a small, irregular body. The eight candidate concavities cover an area greater than that counted for smaller craters, because they are most apparent where small craters cannot be seen: on low resolution images and at the limb on high resolution images. We estimate that there are at least two with diameter greater than 4 km per 140 sq km, which would have to be accounted for in any model that claims these are impact craters.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M; p 571-572
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: We have examined the lifetimes of Near-Earth asteroids (NEA's) by directly computing the collision probabilities with other asteroids and with the terrestrial planets. We compare these to the dynamical lifetimes, and to collisional lifetimes assumed by other workers. We discuss the implications of the differences. The lifetimes of NEA's are important because, along with the statistics of craters on the Earth and Moon, they help us to compute the number of NEA's and the rate at which new NEA's are brought to the vicinity of the Earth. Assuming that the NEA population is in steady-state, the lifetimes determine the flux of new bodies needed to replenish the population. Earlier estimates of the lifetimes ignored (or incompletely accounted for) the differences in the velocities of asteroids as they move in their orbits, so our results differ from (for example) Greenberg and Chapman (1983, Icarus 55, 455) and Wetherill (1988, Icarus 76, 1) by factors of 2 to 10. We have computed the collision rates and relative velocities of NEA's with each other, the main-belt asteroids, and the terrestrial planets, using the corrected method described by Bottke et. al. (1992, GRL, in press). We find that NEA's typically have shorter collisional lifetimes than do main-belt asteroids of the same size, due to their high eccentricities, which typically give them aphelia in the main belt. Consequently, they spend a great deal of time in the main belt, and are moving much slower than the bodies around them, making them 'sitting ducks' for impacts with other asteroids. They cross the paths of many objects, and their typical collision velocities are much higher (10-15 km/s) than the collision velocities (5 km/s) among objects within the main belt. These factors combine to give them substantially shorter lifetimes than had been previously estimated.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 159-160
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Observations of 2060 Chiron was performed on 7 to 8 Jan. 1991 with the Mt. Palomar 1.52 m telescope in the Gunn-R passband. On-chip field stars were used to perform differential reductions. The repeatability of the 5.9 hour light curve was excellent, both within a night and from night to night. No evidence for short-term secular variations similar to those seen last year by both Luu and Jewitt (1990) and Buratti and Dunbar (1991) is seen in the new light curve. Chiron's rotational light curve appears strikingly similar to that obtained a year earlier by Luu and Jewitt (1990), both in amplitude and shape. Both light curves show strongly correlated changes over a timescale of perhaps 15 minutes. These same features were marginally visible in the 1986 light curve. Such behavior is believed to be evidence that Chiron may be more aspherical than the 4 percent intensity variation might otherwise indicate, and favors a viewing geometry where the subearth latitude is rather low. Chiron was much fainter in 1985, when a partial light curve was obtained by Marcialis. Due to the lower sampling rate of these early data, no conclusions can be made regarding the high-frequency light curve structure back then. All three of these light curves differ significantly from that obtained by Buratti and Dunbar (1991), one week before the observations of Luu and Jewitt. The Chiron field was calibrated using Landolt standards on Ut 15 Mar. 1991. A mean R-magnitude of 15.6 + or - 0.1 was found. Variability of 2060 Chiron was demonstrated over timescales of minutes, hours, and years. An intense campaign was urged to monitor the photometric behavior of Chiron throughout the 1990s.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Abstracts for the International Conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1991; p 33
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-20
    Description: Images of asteroid (101955) Bennu acquired by the OSIRIS-REx mission reveal a rocky world covered in rubble; Shape deviates from hydrostatic surface; Internal friction and/or cohesion even if no tensile strength; Understanding the deviation of the surface from idealized shape may help constrain mechanical properties of the interior; Geologic evolution of Bennu is driven by downslope migration of surface material and rubble; May be caused by YORP-induced spin-up, re-accumulation, impact-induced seismic shaking, thermal stresses, or tidal disruption by close encounters to larger bodies.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN66762 , Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; Mar 18, 2019 - Mar 22, 2019; The Woodlands, TX; United States
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: This talk will use images, movies, and radar-derived three-dimensional models to present recent highlights of asteroid radar research, concentrating on low-V mission candidates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII; LPI-Contrib-1109
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: We present the discovery and characterization of DP107 with the Goldstone and Arecibo radars, including a detailed sequence of images showing the system's orbital motion. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII; LPI-Contrib-1080
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: Two small near-Earth asteroids, 2000 UG11 and 2000 UK11 were observed using the Arecibo and Goldstone radars a week after their discovery. 2000 UK11 is a rapidly rotating (3 min) approximately 30 m solid body. 2000 UG11 is two bodies separated by at least 300 m Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract..
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII; LPI-Contrib-1080
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The Arecibo 12.6 cm radar system was used to observe Titan in 1999, 2000 and 2001. The mean value of the radar albedo is 0.16 and the polarization ratio is 0.35. For some longitudes the echo has a specular component although most of the echo power is contained in a diffuse component. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIII; LPI-Contrib-1109
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