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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-02-08
    Description: Since early 2009, electricity and gas distribution in Germany has been subject to incentive regulation designed to ensure greater efficiency in electricity and gas grid operation. However, it remains to be seen how changes to the regulatory framework will affect the investment behavior of distribution system operators. Against this background, the present study empirically analyzes the investment activities of distribution system operators for the period from 2006 to 2012. The key questions are whether the introduction of incentive regulation in 2009 has had an empirically demonstrable impact on investment and whether this effect is due to the introduction of incentive regulation per se, or to its specific design. The findings show a positive effect on investment since the introduction of incentive regulation which, in particular, is determined by the specific design of regulation.
    Keywords: D22 ; L51 ; L94 ; L95 ; ddc:330 ; Investments ; Regulation ; Network Industries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Efforts undertaken by France to restructure the allocation of governmental competencies increased the importance of subnational governments by transferring additional tasks. This paper analyzes the efficiency of public spending on an intermediate government level for a sample of 96 départements in metropolitan France in 2008. Spending efficiency is measured using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Results indicate significant room for improvements and detect spending inefficiencies averaging between 10 and 22 percent, depending on model specification. To explain efficiency, a bootstrapped truncated regression, following Simar and Wilson (2007), is applied. The second-stage regression shows that efficiency is also determined by exogenous factors and identifies the distance to the national capital, inhabitants' income and the share of inhabitants of an age over 65 as significant determinants of efficiency.
    Keywords: C14 ; H11 ; H72 ; ddc:330 ; intermediate government spending efficiency ; nonparametric efficiency analysis ; bootstrapped truncated regression ; Öffentliche Ausgaben ; Provinz ; Technische Effizienz ; Data-Envelopment-Analyse ; Schätzung ; Frankreich
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: We analyze the effects of an incentive based regulatory scheme with revenue caps on the investment behaviors and decisions of 109 electricity distribution companies operating in Germany in 2006-2012. We hypothesize that Germany's implementation of incentive regulation in 2009 has a negative impact on total investment, and that firms increase their investments in the base year. We build a model that controls for both firm-specific heterogeneity and ownership structure and test it with the German data. The results show that investments increase after incentive regulation, and that the institutional constraints used to determine the revenue caps influence the distribution companies' investment decisions. We also note that the investments increase in the base year when the rate base is determined for the following regulatory period. We conclude that a comprehensive assessment of Germany's electricity distribution companies' investment decisions and behaviors should account for firm specific heterogeneity. It should further include all institutional aspects of incentive regulation to design incentives that will foster investments in the region's energy networks.
    Keywords: L94 ; L51 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; Incentive Regulation ; Electricity Distribution ; Investments ; Germany
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Die Ausweitung der kommunalen Wirtschaftstätigkeit in der Energieversorgung wird oftmals kritisch betrachtet. Es wird vermutet, dass öffentliche Unternehmen im Vergleich zu privaten Unternehmen geringeren Anreizen zu effizienter Leistungserstellung unterliegen. Das könnte überhöhte Kosten und Endkundenpreise zur Folge haben. Neue Mikrodaten deutscher Energieversorgungsunternehmen erlauben erstmals eine deutschlandweite empirische Untersuchung. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass es keine Effizienzunterschiede zwischen öffentlichen und privaten Unternehmen gibt. Das gilt sowohl für den wettbewerblich organisierten Stromvertrieb als auch für den regulierten Verteilnetzbetrieb. Allgemeine Umstrukturierungen im Energiesektor wie der erhöhte Wettbewerbsdruck oder verstärkte Regulierungsvorschriften haben zu Effizienzänderungen aller Energieversorgungsunternehmen geführt. Die Dichotomie zwischen öffentlichen und privaten Unternehmen, die in der (Re-)Kommunalisierungsdebatte suggeriert wird, scheint daher übertrieben.
    Description: The increase in municipal economic activity in the utilities sector frequently comes under scrutiny. It is presumed that public utilities have less incentive to provide efficient service than private companies. This could result in excessive costs and prices for end users. New microdata on German energy supply companies allow to conduct an empirical analysis for the whole of Germany for the first time. The findings indicate that there is no difference in efficiency between public and private utilities. This applies to both the competitively structured electricity retail sector and regulated electricity distribution sector. General restructuring in the energy sector such as the increased competitive pressure or the introduction of a more stringent regulatory regime have led to changes in the efficiency of all energy supply companies. The dichotomy between public and private utilities that has been suggested in the (re)municipalization debate therefore appears to be exaggerated.
    Keywords: L94 ; L51 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; public utilities ; local government ; energy ; efficiency analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: [Editorial] Eine moderne Infrastruktur ist die Grundlage für Deutschlands Wohlstand und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit. Die öffentlichen und privaten Unternehmen in der Energie- und Trinkwasserversorgung tragen dazu entscheidend bei. Ihr Auftrag, eine flächendeckende, qualitativ hochwertige und bezahlbare Versorgung mit Energie und Wasser sicherzustellen, berührt zentrale Lebensbereiche der BürgerInnen genauso wie die Produktionsbedingungen der Wirtschaft. Daher sind die Versorger ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des Gemeinwesens und der wirtschaftlichen Infrastruktur. In den 90er Jahren haben viele öffentliche Eigentümer, in der Regel Kommunen, versucht, durch Privatisierungen den veränderten Anforderungen an die kommunale Versorgung mit Energie und Wasser - wie einem erhöhten Kostensenkungsdruck und verschärften Wettbewerbsund Regulierungsvorschriften - gerecht zu werden. Die erwarteten Effizienzsteigerungen sowie Kosten- und Preissenkungen sind jedoch vielfach ausgeblieben. Hinzu kam zuletzt, dass BürgerInnen die lokale Politik offensichtlich wieder intensiver mitgestalten und Infrastrukturleistungen aus kommunaler Hand beziehen wollen. Sie trauen öffentlichen Unternehmen offenbar eher als privaten zu, langfristig richtige Entscheidungen zu treffen, die sich am Gemeinwohl orientieren. Vor dem Hintergrund auslaufender Konzessionsverträge sind in diesem Zusammenhang in jüngerer Zeit vermehrt (Re-)Kommunalisierungen zu beobachten; oft ist mittlerweile von einem Paradigmenwechsel die Rede. Städte und Gemeinden ziehen demnach in Betracht, die Energieversorgung wieder in die Hände öffentlicher Unternehmen zu legen. Die Städte Berlin und Hamburg sind zwei prominente Beispiele dafür. Doch gibt es einen bundesweiten Trend, oder handelt es sich um Einzelfälle? Und wie sollte man (Re-)Kommunalisierungen grundsätzlich beurteilen? Diesen Fragen geht die vorliegende Ausgabe des DIW Wochenberichts nach. Im Vergleich zum Energiesektor sind in der Wasserversorgung bislang nur wenige private Unternehmen tätig, daher ist die (Re-)Kommunalisierungsdebatte in diesem Bereich - abgesehen von einzelnen Beispielen wie Berlin - weniger stark ausgeprägt. Hier stellt sich vor allem die Frage nach Konsolidierungen des gesamten Sektors und speziell nach Kosteneinsparungen durch Fusionen von Wasserversorgungsunternehmen. [...]
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: Nachdem in den 90er Jahren viele Kommunen ihre Energieversorgungsunternehmen privatisiert hatten, ist mittlerweile oft von einem Paradigmenwechsel die Rede. Städte und Gemeinden ziehen demnach in Betracht, die Versorgung mit Strom, Wasser, Gas und Wärme wieder in die Hände öffentlicher Unternehmen zu legen. Die Städte Berlin und Hamburg sind zwei prominente Beispiele dafür. Doch gibt es einen allgemeinen (Re-)Kommunalisierungstrend? Die vorliegende Studie wertet erstmalig verfügbare Mikrodaten der amtlichen Statistik aus und kommt zu dem Schluss: Anhaltspunkte für einen umfassenden (Re-)Kommunalisierungstrend gibt es nicht. Die Zunahme öffentlicher Unternehmen scheint vielmehr auf generelle Umstrukturierungen im Energiesektor zurückzugehen und fällt relativ zum Zuwachs der Privaten geringer aus.
    Description: In the 1990s, a number of municipalities started privatizing their energy utilities; in recent years, there has been an intensive debate about whether a paradigm shift has taken place since then. Cities and municipalities have considered putting the energy, water, gas and heat supply networks back into the hands of public companies; Berlin and Hamburg are two prominent examples. But is there really an overarching trend toward (re)municipalization? According to the present study, which evaluates newly available microdata from official statistics, there is no evidence of a comprehensive (re)municipalization. The increase in public enterprises appears to have more to do with general restructuring in the energy sector, and has in fact been less pronounced than has growth in the private sector.
    Keywords: L32 ; L22 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; public utilities ; local government ; energy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: The increase in municipal economic activity in the utilities sector frequently comes under scrutiny. It is presumed that public utilities have less incentive to provide efficient service than private companies. This could result in excessive costs and prices for end users. New microdata on German energy supply companies allow to conduct an empirical analysis for the whole of Germany for the first time. The findings indicate that there is no difference in efficiency between public and private utilities. This applies to both the competitively structured electricity retail sector and regulated electricity distribution sector. General restructuring in the energy sector such as the increased competitive pressure or the introduction of a more stringent regulatory regime have led to changes in the efficiency of all energy supply companies. The dichotomy between public and private utilities that has been suggested in the (re)municipalization debate therefore appears to be exaggerated.
    Keywords: L94 ; L51 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; public utilities ; local government ; energy ; efficiency analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 8
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-27
    Description: In the 1990s, a number of municipalities started privatizing their energy utilities; in recent years, there has been an intensive debate about whether a paradigm shift has taken place since then. Cities and municipalities have considered putting the energy, water, gas and heat supply back into the hands of public companies; Berlin and Hamburg are two prominent examples. But is there really an overarching trend toward (re)municipalization? According to the present study, which evaluates newly available microdata from official statistics, there is no evidence of a comprehensive (re)municipalization. The increase in public enterprises appears to have more to do with general restructuring in the energy sector, and has in fact been less pronounced than has growth in the private sector.
    Keywords: L32 ; L22 ; L98 ; ddc:330 ; public utilities ; local government ; energy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: This paper provides an empirical demonstration for a practical approach of efficiency evaluation against the background of limited data availability in some regulated industries. Here, traditional DEA may result in a lack of discriminatory power when high numbers of variables but only limited observations are available. We apply PCA-DEA for radial efficiency measurement to US natural gas transmission companies in 2007. This allows us to reduce dimensions of the optimization problem while maintaining most of the variation in the original data. Our results suggest that the PCA-DEA methodology reduces the probability of over-estimation of the individual firm-specific performance. It also allows for a large number of original variables without substantially reducing the discriminatory power of the model.
    Keywords: C14 ; L51 ; L95 ; ddc:330 ; Efficiency analysis ; DEA ; PCA ; company regulation ; natural gas transmission ; Technische Effizienz ; Data-Envelopment-Analyse ; Hauptkomponentenanalyse ; Gasleitungstransport ; Regulierung ; Schätzung ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-06-22
    Description: Nonparametric efficiency analysis has become a widely applied technique to support industrial benchmarking as well as a variety of incentive-based regulation policies. In practice such exercises are often plagued by incomplete knowledge about the correct specifications of inputs and outputs. Simar and Wilson (2001) and Schubert and Simar (2011) propose restriction tests to support such specification decisions for cross-section data. However, the typical oligopolized market structure pertinent to regulation contexts often leads to low numbers of cross-section observations, rendering reliable estimation based on these tests practically unfeasible. This small-sample problem could often be avoided with the use of panel data, which would in any case require an extension of the cross-section restriction tests to handle panel data. In this paper we derive these tests. We prove the consistency of the proposed method and apply it to a sample of US natural gas transmission companies in 2003 through 2007. We find that the total quantity of gas delivered and gas delivered in peak periods measure essentially the same output. Therefore only one needs to be included. We also show that the length of mains as a measure of transportation service is non-redundant and therefore must be included.
    Keywords: C14 ; L51 ; L95 ; ddc:330 ; benchmarking models ; network industries ; nonparametric efficiency estimation ; data envelopment analysis ; testing restrictions ; subsampling ; bootstrap
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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