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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: The marine sedimentary record in Kejser Franz Joseph Fjord and on the East Greenland continental margin contains a history of Late Quaternary glaciation and sedimentation. Evidence suggests that a middle-shelf moraine represents the maximum shelfward extent of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the last glacial maximum. On the upper slope, coarse-grained sediments are derived from the release of significant quantities of iceberg-rafted debris (IRD) and subsequent remobilization by subaqueous mass-flows. The middle-lower slope is characterized by hemipelagic sedimentation with lower quantities of IRD (dropstone mud and sandy mud), punctuated episodically by deposition of diamicton and graded sand/gravel facies by subaqueous debris flows and turbidity currents derived from the mass failure of upper slope sediments. The downslope decrease of IRD reflects either the action of the East Greenland Current (EGC) confining icebergs to the upper slope, or to the more ice-proximal setting of the upper slope relative to the LGM ice margin. Sediment gravity flows on the slope are likely to have fed into the East Greenland channel system, contributing to its formation in conjunction with the cascade of dense brines down the slope following sea-ice formation across the shelf. Deglaciation commenced after 15 300 14C years , as indicated by meltwater-derived light oxygen isotope ratios. An abrupt decrease in both IRD deposition and delivery of coarse-grained debris to the slope at this time supports ice recession, with icebergs confined to the shelf by the EGC. Glacier ice had abandoned the middle shelf before 13 000 14C years with ice loss through iceberg calving and deposition of diamicton. Continued retreat of glacier-ice from the inner shelf and through the fjord is marked by a transition from subglacial till/bedrock in acoustic records, to ice-proximal meltwater-derived laminated mud to ice-distal bioturbated mud. Ice abandoned the inner shelf before 9100 14C years and probably stabilized in Fosters Bugt at 10 000 14C years . Distinct oxygen isotope minima on the inner shelf indicate meltwater production during ice retreat. The outer fjord was free of ice before 7440 14C years . Glacier retreat through the mid-outer fjord was punctuated by topographically-controlled stillstands where ice-proximal sediment was fed into fjord basins. The dominance of fine-grained, commonly laminated facies during deglaciation supports ablation-controlled, ice-mass loss. Glacimarine sedimentation within the Holocene middle-outer fjord system is dominated by sediment gravity flow and suspension settling from meltwater plumes. Suspension sediments comprise mainly mud facies indicating significant meltwater-deposition that overwhelms debris release from icebergs in this East Greenland fjord system. The relatively widespread occurrence of fine-grained lithofacies in East Greenland fjords suggests that meltwater sedimentation can be significant in polar glacimarine environments. The ice-distal continental margin is characterized by meltwater sedimentation in the inner shelf deep, iceberg scouring over shallow shelf regions, winnowing and erosion by the East Greenland Current on the middle-outer shelf, and hemipelagic sedimentation on the continental slope.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-09-10
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1751-8369
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Notes: Marine geological investigations were performed across the Laptev Sea continental shelf and slope. Thirty sampling sites were selected covering a depth range of ca 3500 m. Maximum core recovery was 9 m. PARASOUND sub-bottom profiling was used for site surveying and provided important information on the depositional environment of the continental margin together with sedimentological and stratigraphical investigations.Undisturbed horizontal layering of the sea-floor sediments is a common feature for the Laptev Sea shelf. There is no indication for glaciation of the broad shelf region during the Last Glacial, since moraine deposits are missing. However, a high number of plough marks in places points to recent to sub-recent ice-erosion which has led to an intensive sediment reworking on the shelf. Several broadly incised river channels recorded near the shelf edge are related to Pleistocene drainage systems of large Siberian rivers which cut into the dry shelves during the Last Glacial Maximum and were subsequently filled during the Holocene. During the Last Glacial we therefore suspect a significant freshwater contribution from the Eurasian continent to the Arctic Oceans.The composition of the normally consolidated core sediments indicates a strong flux of terrigenous material, which is mainly provided by the Siberian rivers. Currents distributing the suspension load and sea ice are supposedly major agents transporting sediments across the shelf to the central arctic deep sea basin.Sediment cores from the upper and middle continental slope exhibit only minor lithological changes. Bioturbated, fine-grained sediments with high organic carbon contents dominate. The presence of free hydrogen sulphide gas within the sediment column indicates that an intense decay of organic matter under reducing conditions is taking place. Sedimentation rates are estimated to be ca. 50 cm/1000 years at the upper slope of the western Laptev Sea, being approximately 10 times higher than at the continental rise. The suboxic to anoxic environment diminishes at deep sea sites of the western Laptev Sea, where sedimentation rates and influx of organic matter are reduced.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9055
    Keywords: Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano) ; palaeolimnology ; Holocene ; organic and inorganic carbon ; biogenic silica ; ostracoda ; oligochaeta cocoons ; laminated sediments ; pollen ; soil erosion ; eutrophication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Holocene record of Lake Lugano (southern basin: surface area 20.3 km2, maximum depth 87 m) comprising organic carbon-rich sediments (sapropels), is divided into eight intervals based on radiocarbon- and varve-dating. The content of organic carbon, inorganic carbon, and biogenic silica, as well as the benthic remains of ostracods and oligochaetes, are converted into accumulation rates and benthic abundances in order to assess past production rates and bottom water oxygen status, respectively. The results suggest three periods of distinct palaeolimnological character: (i) low primary production combined with shifts between aerobic and anaerobic profundal conditions (prior to ca. 3000 BC), (ii) moderate rates of production combined with a relatively high profundal oxygen content (after ca. 1500 BC), and (iii), high production rates (460 g C m−2 a−1) combined with anaerobic profundal conditions (present eutrophic state). Corresponding organic carbon contents in the sediments are: up to 5% (i), 4% (ii), and 8% (iii). Until the beginning of this century, the flux of autochthonous sediments to the lake floor correlated with the fluctuations in the allochthonous sediment accumulation rate, indicating that catchment erosion largely controlled lacustrine production during the Holocene history of Lake Lugano. Pollen data show catchment-vegetational transformations at ca. 3500 BC (change from fir to beech forests), at 1400 BC (onset of cereal vegetation) and at ca. A.D. 450 (strong increase in various cultural plants). The first two changes had a relatively large imprint on lacustrine sedimentation. At ca. 3500 BP, erosion increase in the catchment was triggered by vegetation changes in the mountain zone above ca. 1000 m a. s. l., which may have been induced by climatic and human alteration (drop in the treeline altitude). Maximum catchment erosion occurred at ca. 1400 BC which was clearly dominated by human cultivation during the Bronze Age. More oxygenated profundal conditions in the lake after ca. 3000 BC are possibly related to a better mixing of the lake waters during the winter season by increased wind activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-3121
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Until recently the Younger Dryas cooling event was thought to be restricted to the North Atlantic region. However, preliminary evidence based on magnetic susceptibility and stable isotope data from Lake Hetongchahannor, a hypersaline alkaline lake in Inner Mongolia indicates that this event is observed in NE Asia. In addition we find indications of wetter climatic conditions between 9000 and 6000 yr BP, possibly due to increased monsoon activity, followed by a progressive aridification towards the present time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-02-18
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The northeastern Fram Strait at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean represents a key observatory for sea ice reconstructions as it sensitively reacts to environmental changes. A combined biomarker approach (HBIs, sterols, alkenones) was carried out on Core PS93/006-1 from the western Svalbard margin to reconstruct sea ice conditions related to glacial–interglacial cycles of the last 190 ka. The continuous presence of sea ice demonstrates the strong influence of polar water masses in the eastern Fram Strait. Glacial intervals are characterised by extended sea ice conditions with perennial sea ice cover during early MIS 6, the Penultimate Glacial Maximum, the interstadial MIS 5d, MIS 4 and the Last Glacial Maximum. Less severe, yet highly variable, sea ice conditions with more frequent summer melt dominated the interglacial stages. The opposing sea ice conditions along the western and northern Svalbard margin highlight the different regional impact of various environmental forces in eastern Fram Strait. Thus, the major expansion of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet favoured the formation of perennial sea ice west of Svalbard while it triggered the establishment of marginal ice cover on the Yermak Plateau.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
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    In:  [Poster] In: SCAR/IASC IPY Open Science Conference 2008, 08.-11.07, St. Petersburg, Russia .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    In:  [Talk] In: EGU General Assembly 2009, 19.-24.04, Vienna, Austria .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
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    Springer
    In:  In: Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences. , ed. by Mosher, D. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research, 28 . Springer, Berlin, pp. 279-287. ISBN 978-90-481-3070-2
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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