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  • 1
    ISSN: 0022-2860
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Studies on Molecular Complexes. IV. Molecular Complexes of Iodine with Oxo-Compounds. Relations between Complex Stability, the Blue Shifting of the Iodine Band, and the Valence Force Constants of the Donor BondI2 molecules from 1:1 complexes with phosphoryl, thionyl and seleninyl compounds. The increase of the wave number of the visible iodine band which occurs on complex formation (blue shift) correlates linear with the free molar standard enthalpy of complex formation and with the ZO valence force constant of the donor molecule. These relations are discussed.
    Notes: J2 bildet mit Phosphoryl-, Thionyl- und Seleninylverbindungen in CCl4 1:1-Komplexe. Die bei der Komplexbildung eintretende Wellenzahlerhöhung der sichtbaren Jodbande (Blauverschiebung) korreliert linear mit der freien molaren Standard- enthalpie der Komplexbildung und auch mit der Valenzkraftkonstanten der ZO-Donator-bindung. Diese Zusammenhänge und ihre Nützlichkeit werden diskutiert.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1980-10-01
    Description: SUMMARYThe effect of level of N fertilizer on the composition, yield and quality of 21 crops was studied in experiments on adjacent sites of the same field to aid in the development of fertilizer recommendations.Yield of each of the crops first increased and then either remained the same or declined with further increases of N fertilizer. Interpretation by means of a simple model enabled response curves to be characterized by two parameters; one representing the beneficial component of the response and the other the detrimental component. Both varied greatly from crop to crop.The magnitude of the beneficial component of the response of most non-leguminous crops was largely determined by the potential demand of the crop for nitrogen; the exceptions were some root crops which responded less than would be expected on this basis. The adverse component was serious with root crops and those crops that are in the soil for only a short period. High levels of N increased the ratio of foliage to storage root dry weights even when total dry matter was unaffected. The changes were associated with a considerable increase in the % N in the dry matter of the roots.When crops were grown with their optimum levels of N fertilizer a simple linear. relationship between the mean %N in the dry matter and the total weight of dry matter per unit area covered all crops. Simple relationships also existed between total dry matter of non-leguminous crops and (a) the amount of N taken up by the crop from unfertilized soil, (b) the recovery of added fertilizer by the crop and (c) the beneficial component of the response of crops harvested before October.Percentage N in the dry matter at harvest was not a sensitive indicator of the extent to which plant growth was restricted by lack of nitrogen; a difference of 0·1% N in the plant material was associated with a 10% increase in yield.N fertilizer levels influenced the % dry matter and the incidence of crop disorders such as rotten roots and tissue discoloration, but the effects were seldom appreciable with practicable levels of fertilizer application.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8596
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5146
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1980-10-01
    Description: SUMMARYFifty-six experiments, each with 15 levels of P fertilizer in the presence of excess N and K fertilizer, were carried out on adjacent sites of the same field where the soil was maintained at the same low P status. Yields, in every experiment where there was a response, were related to level of P fertilizer by a diminishing-retums type curve, and fitted an inverse polynomial equation with a single parameter to define responsiveness. Responsiveness of many crops were similar but there were, nevertheless, considerable inter-crop differences.Applications of P fertilizer increased the % P in the dry matter of lettuce and spinach as well as yields. They increased the % P in the Cruciferae and Chenopodiaceae without appreciably affecting yield. Conversely, theyhad little effect on the % P of leeks, onions, broad beans and French beans but increased yields.When the optimum levels of P fertilizer were applied, % P (in the entire plant) of the different crops was negatively correlated with total dry weight per unit area and total uptake of P was related by a single curved relationship to total dry weight. In addition, the difference between the % P in the foliage and in the storage roots of the various root crops was asymptotically related to mean plant weight.Percentage recovery of added P (100 kg/ha) by the different crops was largely determined by the total weight of dry matter. It varied from 1% when crop dry weight was 2 t/ha to 12% when it was 15 t/ha.Applications of phosphate suppressed leaf scorch of spinach. On occasion they alleviated stem rot in summer cabbage and influenced the bolting of onions and the number of defective Brussels sprouts. Otherwise, the effects on quality were small.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8596
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5146
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1980-10-01
    Description: SUMMARYSixty-one experiments with 15 levels of K fertilizer in the presence of excess N and P fertilizer were carried out on adjacent sites of the same field. Yield was always related to level of K fertilizer by a ‘diminishing returns’ type curve, and a derived equation, which defined relative responsiveness in terms of a single parameter, fitted the data for each crop very satisfactorily. Although the responsiveness of many of the crops was similar there were marked differences and the optimum levels of K (defined as the level at which a further 10 kg/ha increased yield by 1%) varied from 0 to 360 kg/ha, depending on the crop. Responsiveness was largely independent of the plant family to which the crop belonged, but was related to the mean plant weight atharvest; the larger the weight the less reponsive the crop. No general relation existed between responsiveness and duration of growth.The % K in the dry matter of leaves (including stems) at harvest of crops receiving the optimum levels of K fertilizer was mainly determined by the family. It was generally between 0·9 and 1·1 for the Amaryllidaceae, between 1·1 and 1·2 for the Leguminosae and between 1·9 and 2·5% for the Cruciferae. The difference between the % K in the dry matter with the optimum level of K fertilizer and that with no fertilizer was proportional to responsiveness. Percentage K at harvest was a good indicator of the extent to which crop growth was restricted by lack of potassium.At harvest crops receiving the optimum levels of K fertilizer contained between 29 and 220 kg/ha of K, but uptake increased asymptotically to a maximum as K applications were raised to higher levels. Maximum uptake for nearly all crops was almost double the uptake with the optimum fertilizer application.Percentage recovery of 100 kg/ha of added K fertilizer varied between 8 and 70%, roughly in proportion to the total crop dry weight, which varied between 1 and 15 t/ha.Effects of level of K fertilizer on crop quality were also measured and over the practical range of applications the effects were generally small.The differences between the K requirements of crops are discussed and it is argued that the responsiveness of one crop relative to that of another would be expected to be similar on a range of soils.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8596
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5146
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1974-04-01
    Description: SummaryFertilizer experiments on lettuce were carried out over 5 years on adjacent sites of the same soil. The shapes of the response curves to both N and P varied considerably from experiment to experiment even though the amounts of those nutrients that could be extracted from the soil did not show this variation. Responses to N were of an ‘overturning’ type and the level of N at which maximum yield occurred ranged from 50 to 400 kg/ha. Responses to P were of a ‘diminishing returns’ type and the maximum increases in yield brought about by applying P ranged from 75 to 700% of the yields obtained with no application.A mathematical model was derived which fitted the results from all the experiments satisfactorily. The parameter denning the response to P, and that denning the ‘downward’ component of the response to N were linearly related to the integral of cumulative rainfall with respect to time. Insertion of these relations into the model led to an overall model that predicted lettuce yields for each treatment in each experiment from the values of two weather parameters, the levels of N, P and K and a fitted value for seed weight. This overall model accounted for about 75% of the total variance due to fertilizer applications in the nine experiments. It is argued that most of the year-to-year variation in fertilizer response could be explained in terms of rain influencing the adverse osmotic effects on growth, the leaching of nitrate down the soil profile and dispersion of P from phosphate fertilizer granules especially in the early stages of growth.The model was slightly improved by replacing the parameter ‘time’ with cumulative evaporation from an open water surface, but not with cumulative day degrees, or cumulative evaporation divided by vapour pressure deficit.
    Print ISSN: 0021-8596
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-5146
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
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