We review nano-palpation atomic force microscopy, which offers quantitative mechanical property mapping especially for soft materials. The method measures force–deformation curves on the surfaces of soft materials. The emphasis is placed on how both Hertzian and Derjaguin–Muller–Toporov contact mechanics fail to reproduce the experimental curves and, alternatively, how the Johnson–Kendall–Roberts model does. We also describe the force–volume technique for obtaining a two-dimensional map of mechanical properties, such as the elastic modulus and adhesive energy, based on the above-mentioned analysis. Finally, we conclude with several counterpart measurements, which describe the viscoelastic nature of soft materials, and give examples, including vulcanized isoprene rubber and the current status of ISO standardization.
Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
Natural Sciences in General